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Healthy Pregnancy. Prenatal Care no great change to a woman during embryonic period during late foetal period, foetus has high demands mother functions slow down  nutrients stay in blood longer constipation

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slide2

Prenatal Care

  • no great change to a woman during embryonic period
  • during late foetal period, foetus has high demands
  • mother functions slow down  nutrients stay in blood longer
  • constipation
  • mothers blood vol increases (40%) & faster circulation (increased heart rate and vol)
  • alcohol, drugs & antibodies may pass from mum to foetus
  • increase energy intake to 850kJ / day
  • Increase protein to at least 65g / day
  • Increase Ca, Fe, folate, fluorine (in water)
  • Weight gain (approx 0.5 kg / week)
  • Maintain same exercise program as before pregnancy
slide4

1. Environment:

    • warmth, moisture & nutrition in Uterus
    • Other people, climate, food, disease / Infection
  • 2. Congenital Disorders
    • defects or diseases that are present at birth
      • may inherit a defective gene or due to mutation
      • may be due to environmental factors (teratogenic agents)
        • Teratogenic agents / Mutagens
          • Mutagen: changes genetic info  increases frequency of mutations above normal level
          • Teratogen: capable of interfering with development of foetus  birth defects
slide6

Infections

    • Rubella  cause foetus to be deaf, blind, heart malformation or brain damage
    • Hepatitis & mumps may have varying affects. Influenza may cause brain damage.
    • Listeria infection (Listeriosis): Bacteria ingested in uncooked/old food. May cause miscarriages/stillbirths.
    • MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) vaccination for all 1 year olds
  • Maternal diet
    • Ca: bone growth
    • Vit A (green / yellow veg’s): normal growth of cells
    • Folic Acid (In whole grain bread/cereals, green leafy veg’s, legumes) : Normal cell division & protein manufacture (lack spina bifida)
slide7

Alcohol

    • Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)
    • 1/1000 births
    • Lower birth weight
    • Small head
    • Irregularities of the face
    • Heart defects
    • Malformed arms / legs
    • Mental retardation
    • Hyperactivity, nervousness or poor attention span
slide8

Smoking

    • Decreased birth weight
    • Increased respiratory problems (bronchitis, pneumonia)
    • Increased risk of miscarriage
    • SIDS
    • Smoke + Breast milk = gastrointestinal problems
  • Chemicals
    • Thalidomide (sleeping pills): limb malformation
    • Heroin / LSD
slide9

Smoking

    • Decreased birth weight
    • Increased respiratory problems (bronchitis, pneumonia)
    • Increased risk of miscarriage
    • SIDS
    • Smoke + Breast milk = gastrointestinal problems
  • Chemicals
    • Thalidomide (sleeping pills): limb malformation
    • Heroin / LSD
slide11

Ultrasound

  • Inaudible, high frequency sound waves are reflected against foetal tissue are
  • translated into a visual image on a computer screen.
  • Chromosomal Analysis
  • Karyotype: A photograph/drawing of chromosomes displayed
  • Used to detect: down syndrome, cystic fibrosis, certain neural tube defects (spina bifida), tay-sachs disease, Duchenne muscular dystrophy & sickle cell anaemia.
  • Can be obtained by amniocentesis and chorionic villus sampling
  • Amniocentesis: during 16 -20 weeks, approx 130mL amniotic fluid
    • Removal of approx 10-20mL amniotic fluid containing some floating living cells from foetus
slide12

Chorionic Villus Sampling: during 9-19 weeks, obtain foetal cells from Chorion

    • Procedure and testing Faster than amniocentesis but
    • 1/100 may result in a miscarriage
    • Cannot detect spina bifida
  • Blood tests of Mothers blood: after 6 weeks, sample treated with magnetised antibodies which attach to certain foetal cells, and they are removed for analysis.
  • Fetoscopy
  • Looking at foetus through a small, telescope-like instrument (fetoscope) which is inserted into abdominal wall.
  • Used to detect: cleft lip/palate, missing/abnormal ears, deformed absent/limbs, spinal abnormalities.
slide13

Foetal Blood Sampling

  • Blood is directly obtained from foetus and analysed.
  • Diagnosis may be obtained on the same day.
  • Foetal monitoring
  • During labour/birth
  • Regular monitoring of foetus’ heart rate using ultrasound & electrocardiography (electrical changes in heart)
  • Produces an electrocardiogram (ECG) – graph
  •  then certain components of test DNA are missing
  • Biochemical Analysis
  • Assessment of marker proteins (if present the foetus has a certain defect)
  • DNA Probes
  • Segment of ‘labelled’ DNA, identical to that being tested is allowed to combine with test DNA
  • If it does not combine completely then certain components of test DNA are missing