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BIOSYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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BIOSYNTHESIS OF AMINO ACIDS. Alanine. Pyruvate. Asparagine. Aspartate. OAA. Krebs cycle. Lysine. a -Ketoglutarate. Urea. Glutamate. Glutamine. Nucleotides. Histidine. Ornithine. Methionine. Homoserine. Tryptophan. Proline. Urea. Arginine. Nucleotides. Threonine.

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Presentation Transcript
slide2

Alanine

Pyruvate

Asparagine

Aspartate

OAA

Krebs

cycle

Lysine

a-Ketoglutarate

Urea

Glutamate

Glutamine

Nucleotides

Histidine

Ornithine

Methionine

Homoserine

Tryptophan

Proline

Urea

Arginine

Nucleotides

Threonine

Amino sugars

Creatine

phosphate

Isoleucine

slide3

H3N-

COO-

COO-

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

CH2

COO-

CH2

C-NH2

C-NH2

O

O

H-C-OH

COO-

COO-

COO-

COO-

CH2OP

Glu

Glu

Glu

-Kg

-Kg

-Kg

COO-

COO-

COO-

COO-

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

C=O

C=O

C=O

C-H

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH3

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

COO-

COO-

Pyr

L-Alanine

3-PGA

ATP, NH3

CO2

L-Asparagine

OAA

L-Aspartate

ATP, NH3

-Kg

L-Glutamine

L-Glutamate

slide4

COO-

H3N-C-H

H

COO-

H-C-OH

CH2OP

Glu

-Kg

COO-

COO-

COO-

C=O

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

CH2OP

CH2OP

CH2OH

Making Amino Acids from Glucose

Glucose

F-1,6BP

Glycine

G-3-P

H2O

NAD+

3-PGA

Serine-PO4

Pyruvate-PO4

Serine

slide5

H2C

CH2

H

C

CH

H2C

CH2

N

COO-

COO-

COO-

C

CH

H2

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

N

COO-

H

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

COO-

CHO-

NADPH

Glu

1-Pyrroline

carboxylic acid

Glutamate

semialdehyde

NADPH

PROLINE

BIOSYNTHESIS

L-Proline

slide6

OAA/Aspartate

COO-

COO-

COO-

COO-

COO-

+

+

+

+

+

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

COO-

C~OPO3=

CH2

CH2OH

CHO

O

COO-

+

H3N-C-H

H-C-OH

CH3

SH

ATP

NADPH

-Aspartyl-

semialdehyde

L-Aspartate

NADPH

Aspartyl--PO4

Threonine

Homoserine

L-Methionine

Methyl-THF

B12

p646

Homocysteine

slide7

Homocysteine

Serine

CH3

CH2

S

CH2

CH2-SH

CH2

CH2

CH

CH

COO-

COO-

C=O

H3N-CH

NH3+

NH3+

COO-

COO-

Cystathionine

Cystathione

-lyase

-ketobutyrate

L-Cysteine

amino acid derivatives

Hormones

Neurotransmitters

Pigments

Heme

Polyamines

Creatine

Nucleic Acids

Coenzymes

Amino Acid Derivatives

Take home: Amino acid provide the carbon and

nitrogen atoms that make up the structures of

many biomolecules with diverse biological functions

hormones
Hormones
  • Epinephrine Phenylalanine
  • Auxin Tryptophan
  • Ethylene Methionine
  • Thyroxine Tyrosine
neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters
  • Norepinephrine Phenylalanine
  • Dopamine Phenylalanine
  • Serotonin Tryptophan
  • GABA Glutamate
slide11

H

CH2-C-COO-

CO2

CH2-CH2-NH3+

H

N

H

N

NH3+

H

N

H

N

+

+

H

HO

CH2-C-COO-

CH2-CH2-NH3+

O2

NH3+

N

N

CO2

Famous Decarboxylations

L-Histidine

Histamine (A-CHOO!)

L-Tryptophan

5-hydroxytryptamine

Serotonin

slide12

H

CO2

H3N-C-H

CH2

CH2

COO-

COO-

H3N-C-H

CH2

CH2

COO-

-Aminobutyric Acid

L-Glutamate

(GABA)

versatility of glycine

COO-

+

H3N-C-H

H

Versatility of Glycine

Serine

Purine Ring

Glutathione

Heme

Glyoxylate

Creatine-PO4

slide14

+

N

H2

C

N

CH2-COO-

H2

N

CH3

O

O-P~

O

Creatine Phosphate

H

ARGININE

Creatine-PO4

GLYCINE

METHIONINE

slide15

HO

HO

HO

H

H

H

H

CH2-C-COO-

CH2-C-COO-

CH2-C-COO-

CH2-C-H

NH3+

NH3+

NH3+

NH3+

HO

HO

CO2

Phenylalanine

Tyrosine

Catechol

L-DOPA

Dopamine

Catecholamine

slide16

O2

HO

HO

HO

H

H

H

CH2-C-H

C-CH2-NH3+

C-CH2-N-CH3

HO

HO

NH3+

OH

OH

HO

H

Dopamine

Norepinephrine

SAM

Epinephrine

(Adrenaline)

slide17

CH2

H2C

COO

COO

COO

H3N-C-H

H2

C

C

H

H3N-C-H

H3N-C-H

N

COO

CH2

H

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

CH2

H2C

COO

COO

COO

H

C

C

H

N

COO