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WEEK 11 TEMPEST

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  1. WEEK 11TEMPEST BBL 3208

  2. The Tempest Henry Fuseli, The Enchanted Island: Before the Cell of Prospero (1797)

  3. The Tempest: Characters

  4. The Tempest: Plot Diagram

  5. The Tempest: Plot Diagram

  6. The Tempest: Plot Diagram

  7. The Tempest: Plot Diagram

  8. The Tempest: Plot Diagram

  9. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • In The Tempest, Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the race, class and gender politics of Colonialism: • Prospero is the Colonial Master, deposed from his European seat, and • now imposing his rule on Caliban’s island

  10. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • In The Tempest, Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the race, class and gender politics of Colonialism: • Prospero is the Colonial Master, deposed from his European seat, and • now imposing his rule on Caliban’s island • Ariel is the “good native,” who happily does the bidding of the master

  11. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • In The Tempest, Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the race, class and gender politics of Colonialism: • Prospero is the Colonial Master, deposed from his European seat, and • now imposing his rule on Caliban’s island • Ariel is the “good native,” who happily does the bidding of the master • Caliban is the “bad native” who must be controlled and enslaved

  12. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • In The Tempest, Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the race, class and gender politics of Colonialism: • Prospero is the Colonial Master, deposed from his European seat, and • now imposing his rule on Caliban’s island • Ariel is the “good native,” who happily does the bidding of the master • Caliban is the “bad native” who must be controlled and enslaved • Miranda is the “prize” the ideal of feminine purity that must be • protected from the savages

  13. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • In The Tempest, Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the race, class and gender politics of Colonialism: • Prospero is the Colonial Master, deposed from his European seat, and • now imposing his rule on Caliban’s island • Ariel is the “good native,” who happily does the bidding of the master • Caliban is the “bad native” who must be controlled and enslaved • Miranda is the “prize” the ideal of feminine purity that must be • protected from the savages • Ferdinand is the “heir” to Europe’s wealth and power, though he hasn’t • done anything to deserve his good fortune

  14. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • In The Tempest, Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the race, class and gender politics of Colonialism: • Prospero is the Colonial Master, deposed from his European seat, and • now imposing his rule on Caliban’s island • Ariel is the “good native,” who happily does the bidding of the master • Caliban is the “bad native” who must be controlled and enslaved • Miranda is the “prize” the ideal of feminine purity that must be • protected from the savages • Ferdinand is the “heir” to Europe’s wealth and power, though he hasn’t • done anything to deserve his good fortune • Stephano and Trinculo represent the lower-class Europeans who • emulate the upper class in seeking to take advantage of the natives

  15. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • In The Tempest, Shakespeare seems to have anticipated the race, class and gender politics of Colonialism: • Prospero is the Colonial Master, deposed from his European seat, and • now imposing his rule on Caliban’s island • Ariel is the “good native,” who happily does the bidding of the master • Caliban is the “bad native” who must be controlled and enslaved • Miranda is the “prize” the ideal of feminine purity that must be • protected from the savages • Ferdinand is the “heir” to Europe’s wealth and power, though he hasn’t • done anything to deserve his good fortune • Stephano and Trinculo represent the lower-class Europeans who • emulate the upper class in seeking to take advantage of the natives • Antonio, Adrian and Sebastian are European courtiers who will take • advantage of any opportunity to advance their positions; Antonio • (brother of Prospero and usurping Duke of Milan) plots • with Sebastian to overthrow his brother, Alonso (King of Naples)

  16. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • But, in The Tempest, there are occasional reminders of the pre-modern, pre-colonial attitudes, in which class is all-important, and race has not yet been identified as a category of inferiority: • The court of Naples is shipwrecked on this island because they are • returning to Europe after a marriage in Tunis: the King of Naples has • married his daughter, Clarabelle, to the King of Tunis, an African

  17. The Tempest: Concepts in Acts I and II • But, in The Tempest, there are occasional reminders of the pre-modern, pre-colonial attitudes, in which class is all-important, and race has not yet been identified as a category of inferiority: • The court of Naples is shipwrecked on this island because they are • returning to Europe after a marriage in Tunis: the King of Naples has • married his daughter, Clarabelle, to the King of Tunis, an African • The most seriously “criminal” characters in the play are European • aristocrats like Sebastian and Antonio, not Caliban

  18. Characters • Prospero: The protagonist, the overthrown Duke of Milan who is now a sorcerer on a deserted island. • Miranda: Daughter of Prospero. • Ariel: A mischievous spirit who does Prospero’s bidding and is visible only to him. • Alonso: King of Naples. • Sebastian: Alonso’s brother, who is attempting to kill his brother and nephew to steal the throne. • Antonio: Prospero’s brother, new Duke of Milan, who sent Prospero to the island. • Ferdinand: Alonso’s son, next in line for the thrown.

  19. Exposition • Prospero, the rightful Duke of Milan has just been overthrown and banished to an abandoned island by his own brother, Antonio, who has allied himself with Milan’s enemy, Naples.

  20. Rising Action • Prospero uses his sorcery and his spirit, Ariel, to create a storm which wrecks the ship which carries Antonio (his brother), Alonso (King of Naples), Sebastian (Alonso’s brother), and Ferdinand (Alonso’s son), causing them to all be cast on to the island.

  21. Climax • Miranda (Prospero’s daughter) and Ferdinand (Alonso’s son) fall in love, Prospero creates a series of magical interventions which cause Alonso to regret his past actions.

  22. Falling Action • Antonio and Sebastian’s plan to overthrow Alonso is revealed.

  23. Denouement • Prospero’s dukedom is restored, Antonio and Sebastian are forgiven, and the betrothal between Miranda and Ferdinand ensures peace between Milan and Naples.

  24. Themes • Revenge: Throughout the entire play, Prospero puts all of his energy into getting revenge on his brother. • Jealousy: Jealousy plays a huge role in the story. There is jealousy between Prospero and Antonio and Alonso and Sebastian. • Forgiveness: Forgiveness is the theme most commonly associated with Shakespeare’s The Tempest. In the end of the play, everyone is forgiven, and all is well.

  25. POWER/ POLITICS The play features a number of power bases: Prospero's rule over Miranda, Ariel and Caliban. Alonso’s rule over Antonio, Sebastian and the other on the ship. Antonio’s influence of Sebastian. Trinculo and Stephano’s power over Caliban. There seems to be a necessity to have power and control from many of the characters. The play opens on a ship in the middle of a storm which is concocted by Prospero, showing his power.

  26. PROSPERO The rightful Duke of Milan who is sent away by his brother Antonio. Gonzalo helps him survive. He gains control of the island. Rules over the spirits of the island and Caliban is his servant. Is powerful and uses magic to keep his power. Makes others scared of him, some say he is cruel to Caliban and Ariel. Shows great love for his daughter Miranda. Loves books,reading and magic. (Gonzalo ensures he has books with him). He raises the storm and Ariel ensures all the key characters are separated on the island. He is in control of most of the events on the island. Threatens Ariel with imprisonment and punishment if he fails to obey him, showing a darker side to Prospero’s character. Promises pains for Caliban which is also unpleasant. Complements Ariel for all his help and promises freedom throughout; he eventually keeps his promise at the end of Act 5.

  27. He watches over almost all that happens. • He controls Ferdinand and Miranda’s love as much as he can, testing Ferdinand’s love for her. He complements them both and calls Ferdinand his son once he has passed the test. • “We are such stuff as dreams are made of” his life is coming to an end, showing a sense of weariness. • Draws all to a satisfactory close, everyone is forgiven and hopefully learns their lessons. • EPILOGUE • Signs off with “my ending is despair” a sad lonely figure who has spent all energy. Many say this is a parallel with Shakespeare signing off at the end of his writing career. • MIRANDA • Prospero’s daughter. Beautiful, innocent. • She has not seen anyone else other than Prospero and Caliban and finds the others fascinating. A gentle and caring character, she seems genuinely concerned for the welfare of those on the ship. • She trusts her father and doesn’t ask questions.

  28. She falls in love with Ferdinand at first sight, but all she has seen are Prospero and Caliban. “O brave new world that has such people in’t” expresses best her innocence and naivety. She agrees to marry Ferdinand and is sorry he has to go through such pain to show his love for her.

  29. EARTH AND AIR • CALIBAN • A very earthy character. Physically strong; although unintelligent, he is not stupid. • Acts on instinct, both for food and has sexual desires as he tried to rape Miranda. • He is ugly and described as such throughout “freckled whelp” “strange fish” “savage” “abnormal” “slave”. • Educated by Prospero. • He has to obey Prospero because of Prospero’s power. • Needs to follow others and falls in with Trinculo and Stephano to overthrow Prospero.

  30. He speaks aggressively throughout, but some sensitivity is shown “be not afeared, the isle is full of strange noises” when calming Stephano and Trinculo. Learns from his stupidity in the end. ARIEL The spirit of the island. Rescued from slavery by Prospero (ironic as he treats Ariel like a slave). Obedient servant, he does as Prospero asks. Refers to the elements air, earth, water and fire. Can take on many shapes such as a Harpy, hounds and uses many voices. Light and of the air. Seems unhappy to be working for Prospero “is there more toil”. Helps in the punishment and education of the other characters. Often uses poetry to speak, showing his light nature.

  31. THE COURT CHARACTERS ALONSO A gentle character, he spends most of the play sad and depressed as he fears he has lost his son in the storm. Tired of Antonio and Sebastian’s continual sarcasm he is a serious character. Threatens suicide after he sees the harpy who shows them what they truly are. ANTONIO Aggressive and unpleasant to almost everyone except Sebastian who is his close friend. Plots the death of Alonso, desperate for power and control. Ambition is his downfall according to Prospero, who calls him a traitor. SEBASTIAN Aggressive, insulting and sarcastic. Jokes at others expense. He is racist. Follows Antonio and will do all he can to support him.

  32. GONZALO Knowledgeable, loyal and old. Sensible, wise and holy. A positive thinker in times of despair. Has a vision of the perfect world. Rescues Prospero and also Alonso from the evil clutches of Antonio and Sebastian. Prospero calls him: ‘Holy Gonzalo, honourable man’ showing his truly good nature. FERDINAND Alonso’s son, Miranda falls in love with him. The romantic interest. He is a gentle character, a positive figure. Sad when he fears his father has died in the storm.

  33. THE COMIC CHARACTERS Trinculo Drunken and foolish. Uses prose to speak to show his low status. Abuses Caliban, but a coward when pushed. Stephano Lacks intelligence. Plays on physical comedy of drunkenness, bawdy humour. Caliban ends up being frustrated by their inept attempts to overthrow Prospero. Rude jokes and comments made would have provided the audience with humour and light relief. A coward and easily scared when it matters most.

  34. Other themes • Disguise/clothing Prospero and Ariel in the play and a number of other characters also disguise their true selves. • Animals Common in Shakespeare’s plays, animals are used to describe many characters, particularly Caliban to reflect his earthy nature. • Politics dominates all the groups. • Leadership/power. There are many potential leaders in the play, but few good ones. • Magic/ books are the key to Prospero’s downfall and his revenge. • Earth, air links to Caliban and Ariel, who links to the theme of magic. • Slavery/ imprisonment Prospero uses Caliban and Ariel as slaves/servants. • Justice/forgiveness which Prospero is mainly responsible for.