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PHY134 Introductory Astronomy PowerPoint Presentation

PHY134 Introductory Astronomy

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### PHY134Introductory Astronomy

Newton and Gravity

What Newton Told Us

- . The rest is details
- If we can figure out forces this is a way to predict from where things are today where they will be in future (or were in past):

positions, velocities

forces

accelerations

advance t

Conservation Laws

- Mathematical theorems follow from Newton
- Momentum then is rate of change of
- So if A and B act on each other, does not change – they exchange momentum but can’t create or destroy it. Momentum conserved

More Conservation

- With a little more math, see that a circular version – angular momentum is also conserved
- This will be incredibly important to us – things in space spin
- Earth spins at constant rate because it once did

Energy

- If gravity is the only force acting on an object, can show that total energy is constant
- In general, other forces act. Find that this introduces more kinds of energy: sound, light, heat, chemical, electric, nuclear, etc. but total is conserved
- Units of energy:

Attractive Logic

- If an object of mass moves in a circle of radius with uniform speed there must be a force acting, directed to center, of magnitude
- Moon orbits Earth so force directed towards Earth
- We notice Earth applies such a force to apples. Could this be the same force?
- Planets orbit Sun in (almost) circular orbits at (almost) uniform speed. Does Sun apply the force this implies on all planets?
- If so, Earth must apply a force to Sun directed towards Earth
- It all hangs together!!

Kepler and Newton

- Planet of mass orbits Sun at radius with speed
- Force Sun applies to planet is thus
- Kepler says
- Find

It’s Universal

- Sun applies a force given by to each planet, with same
- So each planet applies force of same magnitude to Sun
- Law does not single out planet from Sun, so must have so

Really Universal

- Earth also attracts the Moon, and all objects near it.
- So Moon and all other objects attract Earth.
- Everything attracts everything else!
- Measured Newton’s constant:

Thinking about Orbits

- Why doesn’t the Moon fall on Earth?
- It does! Moon is constantly accelerating towards Earth. Orbiting is falling without ever hitting the ground

Success!

- Newton’s equations predict Kepler’slaws.
- Also show there are other types of orbits.
- New successes: Halleypredicts return of comet (1757).
- Neptune discovered mathematically in details of Uranus’s orbital motion.

Even More Generally

- Newton’s law is Universal. Apply to any two objects orbiting under mutual gravity. Find elliptical orbit about center of mass with

Example: Low-Earth Orbit

- ISS orbits at an altitude so has orbital radius
- Period given by

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