part 2 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Part 2

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 168

Part 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 129 Views
  • Uploaded on

Part 2. İnterpersonal Communication. İntrprsnl communication involves a. interaction between two persons . Q: Is it nercessary to have at least two people for any communication ? . interaction between two persons . b. Use of natural and / or technological means of communication.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Part 2' - kenda


Download Now An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide3

İntrprsnlcommunicationinvolves

a. interactionbetweentwopersons.

Q: Is it nercessarytohave at leasttwopeopleforanycommunication?

slide5

b. Use of

natural

and/or

technologicalmeans

of communication

slide7

d. Powerrelations

e.g.: betweenmasterandslave; betweenbossandworker; betweensellersandbuyers;

evenbetweentwofriends

slide8

e. Organizedplace

Place is socially, politically, culturallyand/oreconomicallyorganized.

Socialorganization of place:

Politicalorgnzn:

Economicalorganization:

Personallyorganizedspace:

Q: Is publicspaceorganized?

Is a mountainorganized?

slide9

Publicspace is organizedbythestate:

There is no freepublicspacewhere in people can freelyexpressthemselvesand do things as theywish.

Publicspace is culturally, economically, andpoliticalorganized. Youcannot do anythingypouwant.

slide10

f. Organized time (andalsospace/place)

1. Sociallyorganized in general:

e.g. Organization of time accordingtominutes, hours, daysandweeks (Whatkind of organized time is “work time? Who can organizes it? Who can not?

THEN, is sociallyorganized time “organizedby “socialentity as a whole?

slide12

2. Politicallyorganized:

e.g., election time andplace, voting time andplace, campaign time andplace, demonstration time andplace.

Can you as an individual organize a time (orspace) politically? Outcome of it?

slide13

f. Organized time

3. Culturallyorganized: Festivals, specialdays, holidays

(Is culturalorganizatonindependentfromothers?)

Can you organize a time andspacefor a culturalactivity?

slide14

f. Organized time

4. Economicallyorganized time (andspace): organizingworking time andplace

Can you as an individual (not as, e.g., a manager) organize a time andspacefor an economicalactivity?

slide15

f. Organized time

5. Personallyorganized time andspace

Whatarethedeterminingconditons of organizaton of time bysomeone/you?

slide16

Interpersonalcommunication

May be:

  • Technologicallymediatedorunmediated
  • Nowordelayed
  • Informalorformal
  • Friendlyor not
slide17

Whoandwherearepersons in interpersonalCommunication?

Who?

Youandothers as friend, parents, child, student, boss, worker, manager, soldier, policeer.

Where?

At home, school, workplace, street, mall, cinema, stadium

slide18

Alwayskeep in mindthat

Youaresomebody

in

someorganized time andplace

Under

certainorganizedconditons

With

Certainpowerandinterests

slide19

You do not live in a vacuum

as an independentandfreeagent/entity:

You can not liveandact as youwish.

Youlive in a societywhich is organizedaccordingtopowerrealtions

slide20

Yourfreedomdoes not start at thepoint

wheremyfreedomends.

Yourfreedom is determinedbyyourand

others’ economicalpower.

slide21

Why is interpersonalCommunication?

  • Because of
  • Social
  • Psychological
  • Cultural
  • Economical
  • Political
  • Necessity
  • Need
  • Goal
  • Interest
slide22

Objectivesandoutcomes

of

interpersonalcommunication

slide23

Attaining a goal/objective

  • Meeting a need
  • Identifying ourselves and others
  • Establishing a contextforcertainrelationship (e.g., understanding)
slide24

Identityconstruction, maintenanceorrepair

  • Explaining/understanding, forecastingandcontrolling a relationship
  • Establishingandtanimlama a relationship
  • Establishingand tanımlama context of relationship
slide25

Relationshipmaintenance

  • Relationshipdevelopment
  • Relationshiprepair
  • Mediationandconflictresolution
  • Ending a relationship
  • Resatarting a relationship
slide26

Toeliminateuncertaintyandgainknowledge

  • Participate in reproduction of dominant interestsandgoals in organizedstructures
  • Participate in strugglesagainsttheinjustice, despotism, exploitation, slavery, oppression in organizedstructures
slide27

Nature of interpersonalcommunicationchangesaccordingto, e.g.:

ExpectationsGoalsInterests

Position of a person in theinteraction

Organizedrolesandduties

Propertyrelations

Powerrelations

slide28

Interpesonal communication

    • Can be:
    • Coincidental
    • Spontaneous, unplanned or planned
    • Temporary, midterm, long term or lifetime
    • Superficial or profound/intense
    • Fake, insincereor frank, genuine, sincere
    • Informal or formal
slide29

Context of interpersonalcommunicationincludes. E.g.:

  • Nature of organizedspace
  • Nature of organized time
  • Nature of powerrelations
  • Nature of objectives, personaland/ororganizedinterests
  • Nature of pastandpresentcontexts
  • Personalandstructuralfeelings
slide30

InterpersonalCommunication

  • Beginnings
  • Relationshipbulilding
  • Self-disclosure
  • Attachment
slide31

InterpersonalCommunication:

  • Decisiontostop at thebeginning
  • Who can andwho can not decide on startingandending a relationship at thebeginning?
slide32

InterpersonalCommunication

  • Maintenanceandintensification
  • Relationshipmaintenance
  • Gettingcloser
  • Establishingdomination
slide33

Uncertaintyreduction

  • Uncertaintyreductionfordeciding on starting a relationship
  • Uncertaintyreductionforrelationshipdevelopment
slide34

InterpersonalCommunication

  • Maintenance
  • a. Avoidingconflict
  • b. Conflictandconflictresolution
slide35

Oral Communication

  • and
  • VerbalCommunication
slide36

Oral Communication:

  • involvescommunicationviaword of mouth; speaking, sayingsomething.
slide37

VerbalCommunication:

  • Word of mouthorspeakingorsayingsomethingalsobecomesverbalcommunicationwhensociety at theliteratelevel.
slide38

Oral Communication:

  • is historicallytheoldest form of communication as comparetotheverbalcommunication.
slide39

Oral Communicationandverbalcommunication is done viasayingsomethingbyusingvoice.

slide40

Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • Simply a soundthatmeanssomething; calling; expression of fear, pain, happiness; informing a dangeror a happening
slide41

Sayingsomethingbyusinghumanvoice can be

  • usingsociallycodedunwrrittenlanguage (oral tradition, illiteratetimes; no writtencodes).
slide42

Sayingsomethingbyusingvoice can be

  • Usingwords in a writtenlanguage. This is alsoverbalcommunication.
  • (wegenerallyuse oral communicationandverbalcommunicationinterchangably)
slide43

Verbalcommunicationrequires

use of Language in literate sense.

It is theword of mouthexpression

beyond oral traditon of illeteratesocieties, at thelevel of writtentradition of literateage.

slide44

Verbalcommunication

includesarticulationandpronunciation of writtencodes (alphabet).

Peopleusing oral communication in illeteratetimes can not spellorarticulatebyusingletters.

slide45

E.g.,

You can articulatethe oral expression of “dna” in reverse, however an illeterateperson can not.

slide46

Oral communication is theestablishement, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of onlysaying (theunwrittenwords).

slide47

Verbalcommunication is theestablishment, maintenanceortermination of anykind of relationshipbymeans of sayingwrittenorunwrittenwords.

slide48

Oral/Verbalcommunicationoccurs

  • in organized time
  • in organizedspace
  • in powerrelations
  • toattaincertaingoals
slide49

Oral/verbalcommunication can be

  • technologicallymediated
  • Or
  • technologicallyunmediated
slide51

Technologicallymediated:

  • Usinginstruments in oral/verbalcommunication in orderto
  • reachbeyond a humanvoice can be heard (dominationoverspatialboundaries).
  • Overcomeimmediacy of orality
slide52

Technologicallymediated:

  • 1. Spatialextension of oral callingbyusinginstrumentssimilartomegaphone (theystillusetheirvoices)
  • (same time, but longdistance)
slide53

Technologicallymediated:

  • 2. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing
  • megaphone, microphone, telephone, cellphone
  • (same time but longdistance)
slide54

Technologicallymediated:

  • 3. Spatialextension of voice, soundand oral expressionbyusing
  • Recording
  • (different time anddifferentspace/place)
slide55

Oral/verbalcommunication can be:

  • at thesame time andsameplace
  • at thesame time but diferentplace
slide56

at diffrent time andsameplace

  • at different time but diferentplace
slide57

A wordorvocalsoundbyitself is not communicationperse.

A wordorvocalsound is a necessarymeanforestablishing oral/verbalcommunication.

slide59

NonverbalCommunicationis thecommunication done bynon-verbalmeans (no wordsareused)

slide60

Innonverbalcommunication,

  • weestablish, sustainorterminate a relationshiporactivitywithoutusingwords.
slide61

Nonverbalcommunication

  • İncludessignsthathavesocialmeaning.
slide62

Socialmeaning of a sign can be sameordifferent in differentcommunities.

  • E.g.: legcrossing, headshaking,
  • crying, gazing
slide63

If a sign has no sociallyattachedmeaning, then it is not considered as means of communication.

  • E.g.: handmovementswhiletalking
slide64

Nonverbalsigns:

  • Icons (iconicsigns)
  • Theyresemblethesignified
  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.
  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).
slide65

Nonverbalsigns:

  • Icons(iconicsigns)
  • Theyresemblethesignified/referred:
  • a photograf, picture, chart, map, maniken, model car, a person’s profile, someroadsigns.
  • Iconicsignsareused in, e.g., conveying a meaninganddirecting/controlling a behavior. Web understandwhattheymeanwhen web seethemandbehaveaccordingly (orotherwise).
slide66

Nonverbalsigns:

  • 2. Symbols (Symbolicsigns)
  • Theydo not resemblethesignified/referred:
  • A letter in an alphabet, a word ile “cat”
  • Symbolshavesociallyattachedmeaning.
slide67

Nonverbalsigns:

  • 3. Index
  • Theyarelearned in such a waythat web establishmeaningsanddriveconclusions.
  • Darkclouds ……. Itwillrain
  • Smoke…………… fire
  • Knock on thedoor… someone at thedoor.
slide68

Signs can have

  • Commoncodes
  • No codes
  • .
slide70

Forinstance:

  • Shakinghead
  • Handshaking
  • Somehandmotions
slide71

Signswith no commoncodesare not considered as languageandthusare not means of non-verbalcommunication

slide72

Signswith no commoncodesarealsoused in interpersonalinteraction, but theyarearbitrary, subjective, personalandabstract, hence it does not considered as language. in general.

slide73

Somesignshavemorethanonemeaningandhiglycontextbound:

  • armscrossing, lookingdownword, winking, lookingstraighttootherperson’seyes, cryingwhenaccused.
slide75

İdentitybuildingandmanagement, identity marketing, promotion of self

  • viacertainbehavior, dress/clothing, eatinganddrinkingcertainproducts, attendingtocertainplaces,
slide76

Relationalstatus marketing byusingthesametools in thepersonalidentitypolitics of consumerism.

slide77

Expressingcertainemotionalreaction

  • Viatone of voice, facialexpression, handmotions, looking, manner of walking,
slide78

İkna: Nasrettin Hocanın kürküne bakarak Hocayı değerlendiren, biçimin özün önüne geçirildiği hasta dünyada, kürkü giyen Nasrettin Hocanın ikna gücünü artırır.

slide79

Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

  • Regulation of interaction:
  • Ortak kodlar kullanımıyla (örneğin tastik, kabul, devam et, anladım gibi anlamlara gelen sözsüz ifadelerle)
  • karşılıklı konuşmanın düzenlenmesine yardım eder.
slide80

Regulation of flow of communication:

  • Sözsüz Communication paylaşılan sözsüz semboller yoluyla communicationakışınıdüzenlemeye yardım eder.
slide81

Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

  • Affirmationordisagreementfunction:
  • Sözlü kelimelere anlamla ilgili ekleme yapar.
  • sözü pekiştirir veya tam aksinekasıtlıolarak sözü yadsır.
slide82

Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

  • Completionfunction:
  • Sözü tamamlar; Sözü kelimelerin anlattığından daha güçlü olarak veya daha farklı olarak anlamlandırmadır;
slide83

Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

  • Attentiongatheringfunction:
  • Dikkat çekmek için vurgulamayı sağlar (örneğin masaya vurma, sesini birden yükseltme);
slide84

Sözsüz Communication sosyal ilişkide önemli görevlere sahiptir:

  • Replacesthe oral expression
  • Sözle olan bir anlatımın sözsüz olarak bir işaretle yerini alır (örnegin evet anlamına baş sallama, Amerikalılarda küfür yerine orta parmağını göstermesi).
slide86

Yer ve mesafe tutma: Proxemics

  • Dokunma: Haptics
  • Jestler: Kinesics
slide87

Göz ve bakış: Occulecsics

  • Zaman ve statü kullanımı: Chronemics
  • Paralanguage
slide88

Maddeler ve Eşyalar: Artifacts

  • Fiziksel görünüş: Physical appearance
slide90

Theearliestdefinitionsemphasizedpressagentryandpublicity, whilemore modern definitionsincorporatetheconcepts of “engagement” and “relationshipbuilding.”

slide91
The 1982 definitionby PRSA:“Publicrelationshelps an organizationanditspublicsadaptmutuallytoeachother.”
slide92

In 2011/12, PRSA led an internationaleffortto modernize thedefinition of publicrelations:“Publicrelations is a strategiccommunicationprocessthatbuildsmutuallybeneficialrelationshipsbetweenorganizationsandtheirpublics.”

slide93

“the deliberate, planned and sustained effort to establish and maintainmutual understanding between an organisation (or individual) and it’s (ortheir) publics” (www.pria.com.au, 2007)

pr 1 is a basic function of management admnstrtn 2 has unavodable managerial admnstrv functions
PR1. is a basicfunction of management/admnstrtn2. has unavodablemanagerial/admnstrvfunctions
3 meets the research and evaluation needs before an managerial decision and activity

PR

3. Meetstheresearchandevaluationneedsbefore an managerialdecisionandactivity.
slide96

PR

4. Is a tooltoestablishrastionalismandeffectiveness in admnstrtvdecisionmaking. 5. is a continuousandsystematicprocess .
slide97

PR

6. Managesrelationshipwithaudience, consumerorpublic.7. publicparticipation, mediation, agreementand service areimportant in PR.

slide99

Pr is activitytoinfluence an organization’sinternalandexternalrerlations.

slide100

PR

Areplannedactivitestomanagemindsandbehaviors in ordertoreachcertainobjectives.

slide101

PR

Helpssocietytoreachdecisionshelpssocietytoworkeffectively

Helpsprivateandpublicpolicies in harmony.

slide103

Press agentry: describes the activities of people who would do

anything to get attention for their organisations, event or product.

Public information: describes public relations becoming more

sophisticated and evolving into accurate one-way information on

behalf of organisations.

slide104

Two-way asymmetric: describes two-way public relations workwhich is biased to propagating the organisation’s views, rather thanresponding to messages from publics.

Two-way symmetric: is Grunig and Hunt’s ideal model for publicrelations. In this model, the publics’ views are respected and aregiven the same importance as the views of the organisationsponsoring the public relations work” (Johnson & Zawawi 2004,p63).

slide106

• PR protectsandenhancesthereputation of a company.

  • • PR providesinformationtothepublic as well as specificaudiencesaboutanychangesornewsoccurringwithin an organization.
  • • PR concentrates on what a companyneedstogainpublicattentionandusesthemediatoaccomplishthis.
  • • PR acts as a trainedspokesperson on behalf of a companyandlooksfornewwaystoimprovethewaythepublicviews it.
slide107

Consultancy

  • Advocacy
  • 3. Publicity
slide109

5. ManagingPublic affairs.

  • 6. RelationswithPublicinstitution
  • 7. Issuemanagement
  • 8. Managing financerelations
slide110

9. ManagingIndustrialrelations

  • 10. Fund raising.
  • 11. Managingethnic/ azınlık relationsandmulticultural affairs.
slide111

12. Privateeventsandgattingpublicparticipation

13. Marketing relations

14. Settingobjectives, planning, butgetpraparation,personel trainingf, facilityimprovement

slide112

PR benefitssociety:

It is a toolforpublicinterest

Ittalkstoinsensitiveorganizationsforpublic

Ittalkstopublicfororganizations. Hence, ıtestablishesmutuallybeneficialconnectionbetweenpublicandorganizations.

slide114

“letpublic be fooled”

Circuspromoter

PhineasTaylor Barnum

slide115

PR:

PR associationsandtheirethicsprinciples

slide118

The Advertising Industry1.The Advertisers (The clients)Regional and National Advertisers2. The Advertising AgencyThe Client-Agency Relationship3. The Suppliers in Advertising 4. The Media of Advertising

slide124

The Economic Impact of Advertising The Social Impact of Advertising Social Responsibility and Advertising Ethics How Government Regulates Advertising Government Restraints on International Advertisers Gevernment and nongovernment regulations

slide152

Groups of masscommunicaiton

Printingtech: e.g.,

Books

Newspapers

Magazines

Elekronicanddigitaltech: e.g.,

Radyo

Televizyon

WEB

Cemicaltech: e.g., Film

slide153

Kitle iletişiminin endüstri tiplerine göre gruplandırılması

WEB

Kitaplar

Genel ilgi

Okul

Referans

uzmanlık

Televizyon

Ulusal

Yerel

Uluslararası

Magazinler

Haber magazinleri

Kadın magazinleri

Erkek magazinleri

Gazete ekleri

Tüketici magazinleri

Ticari magazinler

Vb.

Radio

Ulusal

Yerel

Uluslararası

Müzik ve plak

. Gramafon ve Plak

. Teyp ve digital teknoloji

Film

Sinema

Tv

Gazeteler

.Günlük gazeteler

Ulusal bölgesel Yerel

.Günlük olmayan gazeteler

slide155

media

  • andrepresentation
slide159

Public communication involves lectures, rallies, convocations, and religious services.

slide161

Public speaking usually requires more formal language and a more formal style of delivery than other types of communication

slide166

Flow of endproducts

Software

Programs

Films