Public housing started off with Village Housing Programme in early 70’s In 1972 State pioneered large scale public housing programme for poor namely One Lakh Housing Scheme which aimed to provide house site and a houses to landless In the early 80’s, housing for SC/ST’s were taken up in a big manner as part of NREP and RLEGP In the wake of severe floods in 1984, a Rehabilitation Housing Scheme was launched for the poor with share of institutional finance From 1989 onwards housing was taken up under JRY History of Public Housing in Kerala
State experimented different loan-linked housing schemes for economically weaker sections through KSHB Mythri Housing Scheme, launched in 1996 jointly by Housing Board and Local Governments was also an attempt at channelising institutional finance for housing programme for the poor Housing for poor assumed special importance with the launch of the Peoples Plan Local Governments gave special priority to Housing Total Housing taken up in Thiruvananthapuram, Kollam and Thrissur which resulted in reasonably good coverage History of Housing in Kerala (Contd….)
Other Housing Programmes • ‘Bhavanashree’ – a unique loan linked scheme of Kudumbashree, families having a two years membership in NHG and having at least 1.5 cents of land are eligible. LSGS normally give a subsidy of Rs.10,000/- - loan portion from commercial Banks ranging from 30,000/- to 50,000/-. Repayment period is ten years with an EMI of Rs.700/- for a loan of Rs.50,000/- • Housing scheme of SC Department – assistance given @ Rs. 1 lakh per BPL family – 10000 houses [average] are taken up annually • Housing Scheme of ST Department – assistance given @ 1.25 lakh – 1250 houses [average] are taken up annually
Housing Scheme of Fisheries Department – Beneficiaries are selected through draw of lots by a committee headed by District Collector- 1500 houses taken up annually • Tsunami Houses – A major rehabilitation housing scheme focusing on costal areas using the special development funds provided by Government of India – unit cost Rs.3,00,000/- per unit
Towards total Housing • Policy to go for a total housing namely EMS Total Housing Programme declared. Instructions issued to LSGs in 14.05.2007 to mobilise resources as a corpus fund to which contributions, own resources and plan grant assistance could be integrated • This was followed by preparatory phase in which District level meetings of three tier Panchayats were convened by Hon’ble Minister for Local Self Government, Hon’ble Minister for Finance, Principal Secretary, Local Self Governments and Head of the departments to mobilise support.
An expert group was set up under KILA for developing a methodology for go in for total housing, design of houses and giving technical guidance • After policy clearance by the State Government detailed instructions were issued on 1.1.2009 which was refined several times based on suggestions received from LSG’s/experts • Comprehensive guidelines for EMS Total Housing Programme was issued on 7.11.2009
EMS TOTAL HOUSING PROGRAMME Objective: To provide houses to all houseless BPL house holds and to provide house sites and house to all landless houseless BPL households Time Frame: To complete the project in the period of 2009-2011
Eligibility Criteria • The family should be BPL - • Ration card taken as basis document for deciding a family and its member • A family living together will not be split • The scheme is for replacement of one unusable house by a pucca house or land and house to landless • The family should not have got assistance for house within 10 years under any Government scheme
Exclusion Criteria The household should not come under exclusion criteria fixed for weeding out ineligible families from the BPL list. The exclusion criteria are as indicated below
Families with a member who is an Employees of class I to IV in Government/Private/ Semi-Government /Aided/Co-operative Institution and Govt./Services pensioners and pensioners of Private/Semi Govt./Aid Institutions. Families with Regular Employees of Public/Private Institutions [Excluding workers in traditional sectors like coir, cashew]. A family having a concrete house having a plinth area of 100 Sq feet of above. Families having 4 wheel vehicle for private use. Families who have a member working in a Foreign Country Families having 1 acre of land, excluding in the case of ST. Exclusion Criteria(contd…)
Identification of beneficiaries BPL list prepared on the basis of BPL Survey held on 2003 and as validated by the Neighborhood Groups [NHG] of Kudumbashree in 2007 was taken as the basis document for identification of beneficiaries
Eligible households who were left out from the BPL list especially SC/ST’s, traditional Fishermen and beneficiaries of Ashraya programme [Destitutes] and that of other categories were also be considered provided they get 18 marks or above as per the criteria fixed by State Government for including families in the BPL list
Verification Process The eligibility of the households was verified by a team of two officials which may consist of VEO/LVEO, ICDS Supervisor, other officials of the Panchayats including transferred officials The team of officials visited the household to assess the actual status of the household and collected the information in the format prescribed for verification. Photograph of the existing house with the family were taken in digital camera. List published and approved in Grama Sabha
Resource Assessment The Assessment of programmes/resources to which eligible families could be provided were made as follows
Mobilisation of the shortfall amount from other tiers and role of DPC • Amount of shortfall at Grama Panchayat level to be consolidated at District level by Project Director, Poverty Alleviation Unit • The amount additionally required to be apportioned to Block and District Panchayats • Share of Block Panchayats to be apportioned to the Grama Panchayats within the Block Panchayat area • Balance amount to be met by District Panchayat • DPC Co-ordinated and prepared housing plan of the District
Illustration of apportionment of loan If the total amount required for 6 Grama Panchayats in a Block is Rs.250 lakh as indicated below and the share that can met by the Block Panchayat is Rs.150 lakh the apportionment is as indicated below Amount requiredshare that can be met by Block Panchayat Grama Panchayat – 1: Rs.30 lakh 30 x 150 = 18 lakh 250 Grama Panchayat – 2: Rs.70 lakh 70 x 150 = 42 lakh 250 Grama Panchayat – 3: Rs.25 lakh 40 x 150 = 15 lakh 250 Grama Panchayat – 4: Rs.40 lakh 40 x 150 = 24 lakh 250 Grama Panchayat – 5: Rs.60 lakh 60 x 150 = 36 lakh 250 Grama Panchayat – 6: Rs.25 lakh 25 x 150 = 15 lakh 250 Total Rs. 250 lakhRs.150 lakh The balance amount to be met by District Panchayat in the same pattern
Allocations of Panchayats and maximum amount of loan they could avail are indicated below
Availing of Loans and repayment Loans will be availed from primary Co-operative Banks or District Co-operative Banks. If there is shortage of funds in primary Co-operative Bank, funds will be provided by District/State Co-operative Bank. Account in the same Bank. Loan will be released in installment. All funds of housing through this account. Amount will be transferred to the account of the beneficiary in stages. The principal amount for repayment will be deducted at source and paid to the respective Bank in ten installments from 2010-2011 to 2019-20 from the development fund allocation of the LSGs of the respective year. Interest will be paid fully by State Government. Arrangements made with the State Co-operative Banks for the payment of interest and principal.
Subsidy norm for new houses General Category - Rs.75,000/- Scheduled Caste - Rs.1,00,000/- Scheduled Tribe - Rs.1,25,000/- Physically and Mentally Handicapped - Rs.1,00,000/- Ashraya Beneficiary - Rs.1,25,000/- [destitutes] The rate is applicable to all schemes implemented by Local Self Government Institutions including IAY
In the case of IAY, the amount required over and above the admissible assistance under IAY [Supplementary assistance] will have to be provided by District, Block and Grama Panchayats in the ratio 25 : 50 : 25 The amount required for payment of supplementary assistance is also being met from the loan availed by Panchayats Supplementary Assistance
Support Arrangements • Technical Resource Team at Panchayat level with representatives of professional institutions, NGOs • Design options – Different types of design options with estimates made available to beneficiaries free of cost • Arrangement s for providing sand to beneficiaries through ‘Kalavara’ on reasonable rates • Arrangement with Forest Dept. to provide timber to Tribals on nominal rates
Other essential facilities for a house – convergence model • Sanitary Latrine - TSC • Smokless Chulah - ANERT • Electrification - Covered under the subsidy • Rain Harvesting, Drinking water - Through separate project of the LSG
Provision of land to landless Houseless The identified beneficiaries who are landless-houseless to be provided land and house Eligibility criteria Family should be BPL There should not be land in the name of any of the family members There should not be any possibility of getting land through inheritance
Land is to be made available through the following methods Assignment of Government land including Surplus land/Poramboke land Purchase of land by the beneficiary utilizing subsidy Purchase of land by negotiation Acquisition of land
Purchase of land by the beneficiary utilizing subsidy Beneficiary purchases land directly for which a subsidy given by the LSG Rate of subsidy is as indicated below • The maximum subsidy or the amount as per the registered sale deed whichever is low will given.
Purchase of land by negotiation The concerned LSG identifies the most suitable land after negotiating with land owners Obtains offers for selling from the owners LSG requests the District Collector to fix the value of land so identified LSG is free to give upto 30% of the value fixed by the DC as solatium, if the owner is not wiling to sell the land at the rate fixed by District Collector.
Acquisition of land Land acquisition is resorted only if it is not possible to get land by the above three methods The Panchayat identifies suitable land suitable for house construction, which have access to drinking water and other basic necessities. Proposals will be sent Government seeking Government indicating as to low many landless families can be rehabilitated in the land proposed to be acquired On receipt of Government sanctionland is acquired under the fast track system by the District Collector
Minimum Extent of land Government have exempted the registration fee and stamp duty in respect of the land to be purchased under total housing programme The land has to be mortgaged for 10 years to the LSG for preventing alineation
Issues in connection with Total Housing • Multiple families residing in a single house • Unusable houses constructed Government supported programmes and incomplete houses • Difficulties in purchase of house sites – high cost • Scarcity of materials and skilled labour • Indebtness of beneficiaries due to borrowing to complete house • Difficulties in constructing houses for the extremely poor
Remedial Action • Panchayats were instructed to conduct a survey of houses of multiple families and unusable houses • Providing sand from reservoirs to housing beneficiaries • Involving accredited agencies • Creation of fund for total housing by collecting fund from public and Government employees • Training of women masons
EMS Total Housing Programme Type design of Houses
EMS Total Housing Programme Different Plans • Design options are possible taking into account • Site condition of the plot • Beneficiaries need • Amount that can be spent
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 1 Area - 28.27 m2 - 304.9 Sq. ft.
EMS Total Housing Programme Model Slanting Roof
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 1 - Back side
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 1 - Flat roof
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 2 Area - 25.45 sq.m. - 273.84 sq.ft.
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 2
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 3
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 3
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 4 Area - 28.27 m2 - 307.9 sq.ft.
EMS Total Housing Programme Model 4 Model 4