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Long-Term Hydrocarbon Remediation Using Treatment Wetlands. Presented by: Scott Wallace, P.E. [email protected] (612) 802-2329. References for Industrial Wetland Design. Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF)

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Presentation Transcript
references for industrial wetland design
References for Industrial Wetland Design
  • Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF)
  • Small Scale Constructed Wetland Systems (Wallace & Knight, 2006)
  • Treatment Wetlands 2nd Edition
  • (Kadlec & Wallace, 2009)
recent industrial wetland examples
Recent Industrial Wetland Examples
  • BP, Casper Wyoming Refinery, USA
  • BP, Lima Ohio, USA
  • ARCO Wellsville New York Refinery USA
  • Williams Pipeline, (Watertown, South Dakota) USA
  • El Paso Energy (El Dorado, Kansas) USA
  • Shell, Scotford I Upgrader, Alberta, Canada
  • Buffalo-Niagara International Airport, USA
  • Heathrow Airport, London UK
  • Edmonton Airport, Alberta, Canada
  • Occidental Petroleum, Cano Limon, Colombia
  • Rosebel Gold Mine, Suriname
  • Sangachal, Azerbaijan
industries using wetlands
Industries Using Wetlands
  • Oil & Gas (upstream & downstream)
  • Chemical Manufacturing
  • Landfills
  • Mining
  • Food Processing
  • Airports
types of treatment wetlands
Types of Treatment Wetlands
  • Surface Flow (SF)
  • Horizontal Subsurface Flow (HSSF)
  • Vertical Flow (VF)
  • Sludge Dewatering Reed Beds
  • Intensified Wetlands
    • Aerated (cold climates)
    • fill-and-drain (warm climates)
    • reactive media (ammonia, phosphorus, etc)
    • industrial wastewaters
surface flow wetlands
Surface Flow Wetlands

Kadlec & Wallace, 2008

surface flow wetlands1
Surface Flow Wetlands

Champion Paper, Pensacola Florida

horizontal subsurface flow wetland
Horizontal Subsurface Flow Wetland

Wildflower Meadows: 90-person treatment system

vertical flow wetland1
Vertical Flow Wetland

Rousillon, France

sludge dewatering reed bed
Sludge Dewatering Reed Bed

Skovby, Denmark: 8000-person treatment wetland

Kadlec & Wallace, 2008

main treatment mechanisms
Main Treatment Mechanisms
  • Adsorption of dissolved-phase hydrocarbons
    • Contaminant retention time much greater than hydraulic retention time
  • Microbial degradation of organic compounds
  • Settling of particulate compounds
  • Oxidation and reduction of nitrogen compounds
  • Precipitation of metals
  • Use of intensification methods (aeration and reactive medias to accelerate treatment)
natural vs mechanical systems
Natural vs. Mechanical Systems

Energy and O&M Needs



Mechanical Treatment Systems

Intensified Wetlands

Natural Systems

Area Requirements



treatment wetland design basis
Treatment Wetland Design Basis
  • Tanks-in-series, N typically ranges from 3 to 6
  • Value of N is different for reactive chemicals vs. tracers
  • Spatial variability of biodegradation rate represented by P
  • Important for complex organic chemistries (such as produced waters
climate range of treatment wetlands
Climate Range of Treatment Wetlands

Wellsville, New York

Northern Sahara,


bp casper wyoming refinery
BP – Casper, Wyoming Refinery
  • Operated 1912 to 1991
  • 37,000 m3 of LNAPL recovered to date
  • Extensive smear zone due to river flooding
  • 50 to 100 years to remediate site
  • High mountain west: -35oC
casper reuse plan
Casper Reuse Plan

HSSF Wetlands

SF Wetlands

casper pilot wetland system
Casper Pilot Wetland System
  • 4 cells
  • With and without insulating mulch
  • Vertical upward flow
  • With and without aeration

Phytokinetics, Inc.

casper rate coefficients
Casper Rate Coefficients

kA, m/yr, based on 3 TIS

Wallace & Kadlec, 2005

full size system from pilot data
Full-Size System from Pilot Data

Wallace & Kadlec, 2005

casper benzene data 2004 2006
Casper Benzene Data 2004 - 2006

Benzene effluent at Outfall 001

consistently below detection levels

<0.01 mg/L

wellsville treatment concept
Wellsville Treatment Concept
  • Cascade Aerators (iron oxidation)
  • Sedimentation Pond (iron precipitation and settling)
  • Surface Flow Wetlands (hydrocarbon removal)
  • Vertical Flow Wetlands (pH adjustment)
november 2008 start up
November 2008 Start Up
  • Cold climate design (ice formation)
  • Thermal calculations necessary
vertical flow wetlands for alkalinity addition
Vertical Flow Wetlands for Alkalinity Addition

Wellsville New York

Wallace et al., 2011

  • Industrial treatment wetlands are already being used in North America, South America, Europe, Asia and Australia
  • Surface flow, horizontal subsurface flow, vertical flow, and intensified wetlands are all being used by industry
  • Use of wetlands for industrial treatment wetlands is increasing on two major fronts:
    • Range of applications in different industries
    • Construction of wetlands in different geographic regions
thank you for your time
Thank you for your time

Treatment Wetlands for Industry