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Introduction Research over the last decades has identified agricultural PowerPoint Presentation
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Introduction Research over the last decades has identified agricultural

Introduction Research over the last decades has identified agricultural

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Introduction Research over the last decades has identified agricultural

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  1. Analyzing the Water Quality Conditions and Potential Pollution Sources of several creeks at San Salvador Community Victor Sanchez and Litzamed Santa GEOExplorers School of Science and Technology, Universidad del Turabo References Chris P, Parr W. 2002. Phosphorus in rivers _ ecology and management. The Science of the Total Environment 282-283: 25-47. Hua W, Lob W, Chuaa H, Sina S, Yub P. (2001). Nutrient release and sediment oxygen demand in a eutrophic land-locked embayment in Hong Kong. Environment International 26: 369-375. Helen P, Lycettb E, Neala C, Loveb A. (2002). Patterns in nutrient concentrations and biological quality indices across the upper Thames river basin, UK.The Science of the Total Environment 282-283: 263-294. Helen P, Neal C, Withers P. 2006. Sewage-effluent phosphorus: A greater risk to river eutrophication than agricultural phosphorus? Science of the Total Environment 360: 246-253. Jarvie H, Withers P, Hodgkinson R, Bates A, Neal M, Heather D, Wickham A, Harman S, Armstrong L. (2008). Influence of rural land use on streamwater nutrients and their ecological significance. Journal of Hydrology 350: 166– 186. Jordan C, Smith R. 2005. Methods to predict the agricultural contribution to catchment nitrate loads: designation of nitrate vulnerable zones in Northern Ireland. Journal of Hydrology 304: 316-329. Robson A, Neal C. (1997). Regional water quality of the river Tweed. The Science of the Total Environment 194/195 173-192. Shrestha S, Kasama F. 2007. Assessment of surface water quality using multivariate statistical techniques: A case study of the Fuji river basin, Japan. Environmental Modelling & Software. 22 (4): 464-475. Possible Pollution Sources In absence of any known geological source of nitrate in the area and non-uniform pattern of distribution of nitrate along the direction of groundwater movement, nitrate pollution is likely to be caused by sewage and agricultural wastes. While some nitrate inwater may orginate from fertilizers, major nitrate pollution is likely to be from sewage. Confinment of large number of cattle near wells particularly in hot seasons and uncontrolled discharge of animal wastes is a common practice in the area under study. Concentration of cattle in small areas, coupled with the fact that ruminant animals produce considerable amounts of nitrogeneous organic waste in the area, is damaging manifestation of nitrogen pollution from farm animals. Similarity in the geo-chemical characteristics of nitrate and phosphate ions and strong positive correlations between these ions indicate the possibility of nitrate and phosphate from grey waters and sewage, which are also evidenced by other factors. Introduction Research over the last decades has identified agricultural land-use practices which are of highest risk for nutrient losses at the field and farm scales, and the forms in which the key nutrients (nitrogen, N and phosphorus, P) are exported, mainly bodies of water. However, the impacts of agricultural nutrient sources on stream water-quality and ecology are less well characterized at the catchments scale. This is because nutrient inputs from the field and farm are modified by hydrological dilution and mobilization, catchments and in-stream processing, and contributions from a diverse range of other rural nutrient sources, like: farmyard, garbage, illegal wreckage, grey waters and septic tanks runoff and village sewage treatment works. Water Sampling Location Materials and methods Eight water sampling sites were selected: four in two different creeks in San Salvador community, two in Turabo River, and two in El Yunque Creek, these two were used as control. To do the field sampling, we used a LaMotte Kit, an excellent tool for examining water quality in suspected or known polluted aquatic environments. A rugged field carrying case contains individual test modules for eleven key water quality test factors, data sheets, and valuable handbooks. Each individual test module includes complete instructions and all the necessary apparatus and reagents to perform 50 tests. We only tested for five different parameters: temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, phosphate and nitrate. Conclusion After performing the water sampling in all four locations we concluded that some amounts of nutrients like nitrate and phosphate are reaching the waters sampled, with the exception of the creek in El Yunque, which was used as control. The major visually identified sources of water pollution were farming and domestic waste. Special attention should be given to Rio Turabo which is tributary of Carraizo Lake, a main reservoir. Although the amounts reported of these nutrients are friendly to the environment, that does not mean that we should stop monitoring our bodies of waters, in order to avoid eutrophication and/or poisoning of the aquatic life. Study Site The San Salvador Community is located at the southern west corner of Caguas. In San Salvador we find a close to 3,300 population. The highest peak has an elevation of a little over 2,000 feet. It has three main creeks that are tributary of Turabo River.The first community museum in Puerto Rico was established at this community about five years ago. For further information Victor Sanchez Litzamed Santa Please contact via e-mail fsantaolivo@yahoo.comand yomo747@hotmail.com