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Conflict Between Peoples. Native Americans & The United States Government. Broken Promises. In the 1830s the U.S. government forced Native Americans to move onto the Great Plains.

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conflict between peoples

Conflict Between Peoples

Native Americans & The United States Government

broken promises
Broken Promises
  • In the 1830s the U.S. government forced Native Americans to move onto the Great Plains.
  • New western settlers pressured the U.S. government to take land away from the Native Americans to be used for farming.
  • 1851 – Government called tribes – Sioux, Cheyenne, Arapaho, and others – together near Fort Laramie in Wyoming.
    • Treaty of Fort Laramie (1851) – government officials set boundaries for tribal lands – many tribes signed because they had no other choice.
native americans resist
Native Americans Resist
  • Some Sioux resisted signing the Laramie Treaty – they chose to fight for their land.
  • Sand Creek Massacre – 1864, Colorado militia opened fire on peaceful Cheyenne village along Sand Creek. 200 Cheyenne men, women, and children were killed.
    • Plains tribes responded by attacking settlement and soldiers – 2nd Treaty of Fort Laramie signed giving large reservation in the Black Hills of South Dakota.
  • Battle of Little Bighorn – 1874 white prospectors found gold in Black Hills – two (2) Native chiefs – Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse – fought to push back intruders.
    • George A. Custer commanded U.S. Calvary in battle with Natives – Custer and all his men were killed.
  • Nez Perce (Idaho, east Oregon, Washington) – taken from their land and forced onto reservation in Idaho.
    • Chief Joseph led tribe over 1,000 miles seeking refuge in Canada
    • U.S. Army caught up with tribe forcing surrender
  • Navajos and Apaches in Arizona fought removal but were ultimately defeated in 1863 after U.S. Army burned Navajo crops and homes.
    • Most were then forced to take “Long Walk” – brutal 300 mile journey to reservation in New Mexico – hundreds died.
end of the buffalo
End of the Buffalo
  • Up to 60 million buffalo once roamed the Plains
  • Hired hunters killed buffalo to feed railroad crews and supply eastern factories with leather
  • People travelling West would purposely shoot buffalo from trains – knew it was important to the Native Americans.
  • Starting in 1870 – 1 million buffalo killed per year: by 1880s the buffalo were dying out
  • Forced assimilation – adopting the dominant culture – was the way many whites believed Native Americans would survive.
  • U.S. government sent N.A. children to boarding schools in hopes of “Americanizing” them.
    • Dressed in European clothing, learned English, spent part of day farming or other manual labor
    • Disease spread quickly, hundreds died
  • Dawes Act of 1887 – divided tribal lands into plots that Native Americans could farm in cooperation with settlers.
    • Not all Natives wanted to be farmers – some could not afford it and did not have the right tools