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Tritium Transport in LLE: Investigations in the TITAN Collaboration. P. Sharpe, P. Calderoni, D.-K. Sze S. Konishi, S. Fukada, T. Terai and the TITAN Task 1-2 Team. FNST Meeting UCLA 12-14 August 2008. OUTLINE. LLE Database of Materials Properties Tritium Transport Data Variation

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Tritium Transport in LLE:

Investigations in theTITAN Collaboration

P. Sharpe, P. Calderoni, D.-K. SzeS. Konishi, S. Fukada, T. Teraiand the TITAN Task 1-2 Team

FNST Meeting


12-14 August 2008



LLE Database of Materials Properties

Tritium Transport Data Variation

Recent TITAN Task 1-2 Results

Upcoming Work in TITAN Task 1-2


LLE Database of Materials Properties

  • Strong interest by several parties in the utility of LLE (lead-lithium eutectic) for fusion blanket systems
    • ITER TBM designs - DFLL (CN), HCLL (EU), DCLL (US)
    • Advanced reactor concepts - ARIES (US), European Fusion PowerPlant Design Options Studies, etc.
  • Varying functional demands on LLE - tritium breeding and some degree of self-cooling
  • Nuclear systems licensing requirements must be considered for LLE
    • Pedigree of database, maturity of materials properties, applicationof codes and standards
    • ITER TBM’s will be licensed separately from ITER
  • A coordinated effort is underway to establish a Computing Expert System Database for LLE thermo-physical/chemical properties; intended international availability
  • Database incorporates uncertainty quantification and degree of consensus (e.g. different experiment techniques to obtain property values)

LLE Database of Materials Properties, cont.

Database classification:

General Design Parameters and Ranges on Interest

E and B fields - 0-1 kV/m, 0-15 T Neutron wall loading - 2.5 MW/m2Power density - ~1MW/m36Li burnup - ~ 0.1 at.% / fpd / GWthTemperature - 235˚C to 700˚CT pressure - 10 Pa to 10 kPaFlow velocity - ~ 1 mm/s to ~1 m/s

LLE Materials Standard Database (Bulk)

constitutive relations, thermodynamic properties,impurity characterization and behavior, chemical reactivity,H-isotope transport,and He bubble transport

LLE Materials Extended Database (MHD)

electric-magnetic properties,hydrodynamic correlations,and 2-phase dispersion correlations

Near-eutectic Composition Sensitivities

  • LLE chemical activity governed by Li activity
  • Tritium solubility variation from mixture disproportioning in cool areas or aggregation
  • Mixture standards and impurity tolerances

Tritium Transport Data Variations

courtesy L. Sedano, CIEMAT


Tritium Transport Data Variations, cont.

Diffusion Constant Variations:

Measurements from Desorption Technique

D=2.32x10‑7exp(‑27000/RT) m2s‑1

Fukada’s recent data


(2) D=4.03x10‑8 exp(‑19500/RT) m2s‑1


(3) D=2.62x10‑9 exp(‑6630/RT) m2s‑1


(4) D(450°C)= 1.5×10‑9 m2s-1

(Fauvet & Sannier)

Moderate agreement - within an order of magnitude - from similar experiment arrangements. However sensitivity of D to mass transport correlations is needed for blanket system characterization.

courtesy I. Ricapito, ENEA CR Brasimone


Temperature, ˚C







Absorption techniques



Desorption techniques

No consensus on data range, nor even behavior at low partial pressure…

Tritium Transport Data Variations, cont.

Sievert’s Constant Variations:

courtesy I. Ricapito, ENEA CR Brasimone


Recent TITAN Task 1-2 Results

  • adsorption/desorption isothermmeasurement system installed at INL
  • Small quantities of LLE (~ 25g) testable inadsorption and desorption modes…

Recent TITAN Task 1-2 Results, cont.

Solubility Variations: Preliminary data


400 C

300 C

500 C

600 C

Recent TITAN Task 1-2 Results, cont.

Solubility Variations: Increasing temperature

dashed - Aiello (adsorption)

points - INL desorption data

solid - Reiter (desportion)

Solubiltiy (y-axis) expressed as concentration (atomic fraction) of hydrogen in LLE

Plotted as x-axis is p - p expressed in Pa and covering the range 1 - 1x105 Pa



Low pressure side

Molecular diffusion



Atomic diffusion


High pressure side

Molecular diffusion

H2 or D2




Recent TITAN Task 1-2 Results, cont.

Solubility Variations: Fukada’s data

  • Test system assembled at Kyushu University; based on previous previous permeation tests in fusion liquid (Flinak and Flibe)

Recent TITAN Task 1-2 Results, cont.

Solubility Variations: Fukada’s data


Upcoming Work in TITAN Task 1-2

  • Testing of INL experiment using tritium
  • Testing of Kyushu experiment in bouyant convection configuration
  • Initiate design of LLE flow loop for testing T removal (vacuum permeator concept)

Thank you for your attention!


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