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Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips. Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D. Acknowledgements. America Outdoors David Brown Pennsylvania State University Traci Zillifro Gyan Nyaupane Deborah Kerstetter. Purpose.  Non-participants Constraints  Participants Information sources

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Presentation Transcript
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

America Outdoors

David Brown

Pennsylvania State University

Traci Zillifro

Gyan Nyaupane

Deborah Kerstetter

purpose
Purpose

Non-participants

  • Constraints

Participants

  • Information sources
  • Motivations
  • Decision making roles
  • Type of group
methods
1st mailing

2nd mailing

3rd mailing

1 week

2 weeks

2 weeks

251 surveys received

121 surveys received

218 surveys received

Methods

Survey

8 pages / 4 sections

Incentive for participation

Population

Outdoor enthusiasts

14 states, 157 individuals in each state(N=2,200)

sample
Sample
  • Sample – 590 usable surveys (30.6%)
  • 51.6% Females, 48.4% Males
  • Average age: 48.1 years old
  • 18.0% Managers, 13.6% Retired, 11.3% Sales, 7.9% Teacher
  • Income > $55k (71.3 %)
non participants
 Non-participants

Outdoor enthusiasts who did not participate in any of the activities

  • 59.2% of sample
  • 57.3% Females, 42.7% Males
  • Average age: 48.7 years old
  • 18.0% Managers, 14.0% Retired, 11.9% Sales
  • 79.9% Income > $55K
  • 94.5% Caucasian/white
  • 32.3% Suburbs, 18.7% Sml city, 15.9% Lg city, 14.1 % Rural
  • 52.9% College, 28.2% Graduate school, 18.7% High school
participation rates
Participation Rates

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

Southwest 19.3% 14.7% 4.6%

Northwest 20.7% 25.4% 4.6%

Southeast 20.5% 25.3% 3.8%

Midwest 14.4% 26.8% 2.5%

Northwest 9.9% 16.7% 3.9%

constraints
Constraints

Reasons why individuals do not participate in an activity despite being interested

  • Intrapersonal constraints
    • Stress, perceived skill, risk
  • Interpersonal constraints
    • Availability of friends or family
  • Structural constraints
    • Free time, family-life-cycle, monetary costs,
constraints results
Constraints – Results

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

Intrapersonal 2.58 2.31 2.53 *

Interpersonal 2.84 2.92 2.99

Structural 3.15 2.89 3.09 *

(1=not important, 5=very important)

  • Intrapersonal are least important – little control
  • Inter & Structural most important – more control
  • Canoeing is perceived as less threatening
  • Canoeing is perceived as less costly ($, time)
constraints implications
Constraints – Implications
  • Offer trips with varying levels of challenge
  • Offer instruction programs
  • Educate about actual risks and exertion
  • Offer short options
  • Offer family fun trips
  • Do not use discounts to increase demand
  • Help customers educate others
participants
 Participants

Outdoor enthusiasts who participated in each activity

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

Females 38.3% 39.3% 47.6%

Occupation Mgt, Ret Mgt, Sales Mgt, Teach

Income>$55k 85.9% 85.9% 71.4%

Community Sub, LCt Sub, STw Sub, LCt

sources of information
Sources of Information

Importance of sources of information about the outfitter

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

1 Previous trips 4.0 4.0 3.9

2 Friends/family 3.9 4.0 3.7

3 Brochure 3.6 3.3 3.2

4 Internet 3.1 2.8 2.8

5 Newsletter/catalog 2.9 2.6 2.8

6 Tourism agency 2.6 2.5 2.5

7 Newspaper/magazine 2.4 2.3 2.8

(1=not important, 5=very important)

sources of info implications
Sources of Info – Implications
  • Encourage trial – experience is most important
  • Help customers become advocates – WOM advertising is very important
      • Merchandize with logo
      • Group information packet
      • Internet forums, postcards, digital pictures
  • Do not neglect brochures
  • Embrace Internet marketing
  • Use newsletters and catalogs for nurturing relationships with loyal customers
motivations
Motivations

Importance of motivation factors to take the trip

  • Self improvement

Self confidence, who I am, feel independent, capable of doing

  • Escape life

Physical exercise, release tensions, avoid responsibilities / clatter

  • Family fun
    • Do something with family, bring family closer
motivations results
Motivations – Results

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

Self improvement 2.86 2.58 3.03

Escape life 3.00 3.34 3.46

Family fun 3.53 3.96 3.54

(1=not important, 5=very important)

  • Family fun most important motivation
  • Self improvement least important motivation
  • Canoeing least Self improvement
  • Canoeing highest family fun
motivations implications
Motivations - Implications
  • Develop family trips and promotions – social factors are important motivation
  • Benchmark canoeing outfitters in attracting families
  • Promotions for rafting and canoeing should focus on “overcoming challenges” (item level)
  • Promotions for horseback riding should focus on learning about one’s potential & escape (item level)
  • Excitement and independence are not important for horseback riders
decision making roles
Decision-making Roles

Level of involvement in decision-

making roles preparing for the trip

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

Gathering info 43.5% 43.7% 44.2%

Sharing info w/ group 42.3% 40.8% 42.5%

Final purchase 52.0% 45.2% 65.4%

Make reservations 48.7% 46.7% 55.4%

Coordinating travel 43.7% 46.3% 55.4%

d m roles results
D-M Roles - Results

Do all customers collaborate in

pre-trip decision-making roles?

Frequency charts

No

K-means Cluster Analysis

Three kinds of customers

40% low involvement

25% collaborative role

35% exclusive control

d m roles implications
D-M Roles – Implications
  • Not all customers/groups are the same!
    • Take charge leaders
    • Team work
    • Come along
  • Provide assistance to take charge leaders
  • Come alongs are good because of WOM and trials
  • Create communication system to work with teams
type of group
Type of Group

Motivations and behavior are closely

related to type of social group

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

Spouse 56.8% 74.2% 61.5%

Children 40.9% 47.0% 46.2%

Friends 47.1% 50.0% 46.2%

Business peers 13.8% 6.1% 0.0%

Church groups 10.3% 7.6% 0.0%

Tour groups 5.7% 1.5% 0.0%

Youth groups 8.0% 4.5% 0.0%

type of group results
Type of Group - Results

Motivations differences between family and non-family segment

Rafting Canoeing Horseback

Fam/NonF Fam/NonF Fam/NonF

Self improvement 2.80 / 2.90 2.65 / 2.38 2.88 / 3.27

Escape life 3.02 / 2.97 3.49 / 2.92 3.38 / 3.60

Family fun 3.97 / 2.95 4.20 / 3.26 4.13 / 2.60

(1=not important, 5=very important)

  • Expected Vs observed don’t match!!!
type of group implications
Type of Group – Implications
  • Target families – more than half of the participants belong to family segment
  • Rafting outfitters provide experiences attractive to everyone
      • Various types of groups
      • Small differences in motivations between Fam / Nonfam
  • Canoeing outfitters have been very successful in attracting families
  • Horseback outfitters attract non-family market by focusing on escape & self improvement
summary
Summary
  • Various factors are constraining the participation of the majority of outdoor enthusiasts
      • Educating about risks and physical challenge
      • Help overcome time and family constraints
  • Maximize own experience and WOM are most important sources of information
      • Encourage advocacy and trial
  • Social/family motivations are most important
      • Only for family segment
  • Various types of customers
      • Come alongs, team workers, take charge
resolving barriers for participation in outfitted trips24

Resolving Barriers for Participation in Outfitted Trips

Duarte B. Morais, Ph.D.

The Pennsylvania State University

228 Mateer Building

University Park, PA 16802-1307

[email protected] (814) 865-5614

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