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Papermaking The process of going from Pulp to Paper. Objectives Of Papermaking. Good Formation Physical and Optical Properties High Capacity (tons paper/day). Papermaking Wet to Dry. Stock Preparation (Wet-end) Refining, Screens, Cleaners, Chemical Additives Papermachine

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objectives of papermaking
Objectives Of Papermaking
  • Good Formation
  • Physical and Optical Properties
  • High Capacity (tons paper/day)
papermaking wet to dry
PapermakingWet to Dry
  • Stock Preparation (Wet-end)
    • Refining, Screens, Cleaners, Chemical Additives
  • Papermachine
    • Headbox, Forming Section, Press Section, Dryers, Size Press, Paper Reel
  • Dry End
    • Coating, Calendaring, Rewinding, Packaging
  • Purpose of Refining
    • Collapse fibers to improve bonding
    • Fibrillates (shreds fibers) to improve bonding
pressure screens
Pressure Screens
  • Remove large contaminants
    • Plastics
    • Metals
    • Rocks
centrifugal cleaners
Centrifugal Cleaners
  • Use centrifugal force to remove contaminants
  • Removes particles that are lighter or heavier than pulp
    • Plastics
    • Dirt
chemical paper additives
Chemical Paper Additives
  • Acids and Bases
    • Control pH
  • Sizing Agents
    • Rosin, waxes, AKD
    • Used for paper grades requiring water repellency or controlled rate of water absorption
  • Dry Strength Additives
    • Starch and other polymers
    • Used to improve strength and stiffness of paper
  • Wet Strength Additives
    • Polymers that crosslink to fiber surfaces
    • Used for paper grades such as toweling
chemical paper additives10
Chemical Paper Additives
  • Fillers
    • Clay, talc, TiO2 (titanium dioxide)
    • Improves optical and surface properties for printing grade papers
  • Retention Aids
    • Polymers that improve retention of fiber fines and fillers
  • Defoamers
    • Improve water drainage and sheet formation
  • Slimicides
    • Controls slime growth and other microorganisms in papermachine whitewater
  • Headbox and Forming Section
  • Press Section
  • Dryer Section
papermachine basics fourdrinier machine
Papermachine BasicsFourdrinier Machine
  • Headbox
    • Distribute fibers onto wire
  • Forming Section
    • Form sheet and remove water
  • Press Section
    • Remove more water and improve smoothness and bonding
  • Dryer Section
    • Dry paper using steam
  • Paper Reel - Roll up paper
headbox and forming section
Headbox and Forming Section


Gap former (also called twin wire former) can remove water

from both sides of the sheet.

headbox and forming section14
Headbox and Forming Section



Used to make linerboard like what is on the outside of fruit boxes.

Primary headbox would be brown pulp and secondary bleached pulp.

mechanical water removal hydrofoil
Mechanical Water RemovalHydrofoil
  • As the wire passes over the foil the pressure underneath the wire is less than on top and water is forced through the wet web.


press section
Press Section
  • Remove more water from sheet before drying
  • It can smooth surface of sheet and reduce bulk (make a thinner sheet).
papermachine water loop basis 1 ton bone dry pulp
Papermachine Water Loop(Basis: 1 ton bone dry pulp)

1.49 ton

339 gal

0.5% fiber

20% fiber

40% fiber

92% fiber








1 ton

1 ton

1 ton

1 ton


4 ton

950 gal

1.5 ton

360 gal

0.09 ton

21 gal

199 ton

47,400 gal

195 ton

46,450 gal

2.5 ton

590 gal


papermachine energy consumption basis 1 ton air dry pulp
Papermachine Energy Consumption(Basis: 1 ton air dry pulp)


100 kWh








140 kWh

90 kWh


0.7 GJ

0.3 GJ

3.4 GJ

Drying accounts for approximately 66% of total energy consumption.

dryer section
Dryer Section
  • Water removed by evaporation using steam heated cylinders.
size press
Size Press
  • Puts surface coating of a sizing agent on a sheet
  • Usually starch
  • Decreases water and air permeability and increases paper strength.
  • Means to “press with a roll”
  • Smoothes surface of paper sheet
  • Cut and roll paper to customer needs.
pigment coating
Pigment Coating

To dryer

  • Fine filler particles mixed with binders put on surface of paper
  • Improves sheet surface for printing


or Air