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Grade Intersection 2011.4.14. Public transport facility & Parking facility. 2011.5.19. General. Public transport ( also public transportation or public transit ) is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public.

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grade intersection 2011 4 14

Grade Intersection2011.4.14

Public transport facility

& Parking facility


  • Public transport (also public transportation or public transit) is a shared passenger transportation service which is available for use by the general public.
  • Public transport modes include buses, trolleybuses, trams and trains, 'rapid transit' (metro/subways/undergrounds etc) and ferries.
  • Intercity public transport is dominated by airlines, coaches, and intercity rail. High-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world.
  • Share taxi offers on-demand services in many parts of the world and some services will wait until the vehicle is full before it starts. Paratransit is sometimes used in areas of low-demand and for people who need a door-to-door service.
  • The omnibus, the first organized public transit system within a city, appears to have originated in Paris, France, in 1662.
  • The omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829.
  • The first passenger horse-drawn railway was opened in 1806 between Swansea and Mumbles.
  • In 1825, George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway, north east England, which was the first public steam railway in the world.

Early trolley car in Newton, Massachusetts.

need for public transport
Need for public transport
  • Provides alternative mode for travel
  • Reduces traffic congestion, improves mobility / saves system-wide travel time
  • Helps lead the Nation towards its goals and policies of protecting the environment, conserving energy, and providing for the health, safety and security of its citizens

• Enhances economic opportunities by creating vibrant communities, revitalizing business districts and activity centers

  • Airline

An airline provides scheduled service with aircraft between airports. Air travel has high up to very high speeds, but incurs large waiting times prior and after travel, and is therefore often only feasible over longer distances or in areas where lack of ground infrastructure makes other modes of transport impossible.

  • Bus and coach

Bus services use buses on conventional roads to carrying numerous passengers on shorter journeys. Buses operate with low capacity (i.e. compared with trams or trains), and can operate on conventional roads, with relatively inexpensive bus stops to serve passengers.

  • Trains
  • Passenger rail transportis the conveyance of passengers by means of wheeled vehicles specially designed to run on railways. Trains allow high capacity on short or long distance, but require track, signalling, infrastructure and stations to be built and maintained. Urban rail transit consists of trams, light rail, rapid transit, people movers, commuter rail, monorailsuspension railways and funiculars.
  • Commuter, intercity, and high-speed rail

Commuter rail is part of an urban area's public transport; it provides faster services to outer suburbs and neighboring towns and villages. Trains stop at all stations, that are located to serve a smaller suburban or town center.

  • Trams and light rail

Trams are rail vehicles that run in city streets or dedicated tracks. They have higher capacity than buses, but must follow dedicated infrastructure with rails and wires either above or below the track, limiting their flexibility.

Light rail is a modern development (and use) of the tram, with dedicated right-of-way not shared with other traffic, step-free access and increased speed. Light rail lines are, thus, essentially modernized interurbans.

  • Rapid transit

A rapid transit railway system (also called a metro, underground, or subway) operates in an urban area with high capacity and frequency, and grade separation from other traffic.

  • Personal rapid transit

Personal rapid transit is an automated cab service that runs on rails or a guideway. This is an uncommon mode of transportation (excluding elevators) due to the complexity of automation.

  • Cable Propelled Transit

Cable-Propelled Transit (CPT) is a transit technology that moves people in motor-less, engine-less vehicles that are propelled by a steel cable.

  • Ferry

A ferry is a boat or ship, used to carry (or ferry) passengers, and sometimes their vehicles, across a body of water.

urban public transport facility
Urban public transport facility
  • Bus only lanes
  • A bus lane or bus only lane is a lane restricted to buses, and generally used to speed up public transport that would be otherwise held up by traffic congestion.
  • Bus lanes give priority to buses and cut down on journey times where roads are congested with other traffic.
  • According to the American Public Transportation Association (APTA) and the National Transit Database (NTD), the world's first designated bus lane was created in Chicago in 1939.
  • The first bus lanes in Europe were established in 1962 in the German city of Hamburg.
  • On January 15, 1964 the first bus lane in France was designated along the quai du Louvre in Paris.
  • On 26 February 1968 the first bus lane in London was put into service on Vauxhall Bridge.
bus only lanes
The installation of bus lanes requires additional space to either be constructed (increasing the impact of the road on the surrounding area, and possibly requiring private land) or taken from existing lanes, reducing the capacity of the road for private vehicles.Bus only lanes

Bus lane on Broadway (New York City)

bus only lanes1
Bus only lanes

A bus lane on Gloucester Road in Hong Kong,

with the words "bus lane" painted in English and "巴士綫" in Chinese

  • BRT is a term applied to a variety of public transportation systems using buses to provide faster, more efficient service than an ordinary bus line.
  • The goal of these systems is to approach the service quality of rail transit while still enjoying the cost savings and flexibility of bus transit.
  • BRT systems come in a variety of forms, such as dedicated busways with their own rights-of-way (e.g., the OttawaTransitway or the PittsburghMLK East Busway), bus services using HOV lanes, dedicated freeway lanes (e.g., Honolulu's CityExpress) and limited-stop buses on pre-existing routes.
  • BRT attempts to combine the advantages of a rail system (noticeably right-of-way, which improves punctuality and frequency) with the advantages of a bus system (low construction and maintenance costs, low vehicle costs, right-of-way not required for entire length, and for the ability of feeder bus services to join a trunk busway).
  • Brt System in Delhi

BRT System in Delhi

TransMilenio BRT system in Bogotá, Colombia,

holds a record 40,000 passengers per hour.

  • Lane-

Many BRT systems, such as Ottawa's OC Transpo and Brisbane's South-East Busway, are based on multiple bus routes sharing a common dedicated busway to bypass congestion, especially to/from a central business district. In this form, the BRT system's passenger capacity is limited by vehicle capacity multiplied by vehicle headway of the busway.

  • Cost-

The capital costs of implementing BRT lines in general is more cost-effective than constructing LRT lines. A study by the United States Government Accountability Office found that the average capital cost per mile for busways was $13.5 million while light rail average costs were $34.8 million.

Costs vary considerably due to factors such as cost of the roadway, station structures, park-and-ride facilities, traffic signal systems and vehicles.

  • Environmental impact-

The typical diesel engine on the bus causes noticeable levels of air pollution, noise and vibration. With hybrid vehicles and the new forms of trolleybus, BRT designers hope to increase ride quality and decrease pollution. As the energy use for acceleration is proportional to the vehicle mass, electric traction allows lighter vehicles, faster acceleration and energy that can be fed back into batteries or the grid through regenerative brakes.

  • 设计原则
  • 公共交通专用通道
  • 公共交通停靠站
  • 公共交通首末站、保养厂、修理厂
  • 公交专用道建设步伐加快,BRT专用道建设取得突破性发展。常规公交专用长度增加约13 公里,BRT专用道总长度达35.94公里,公交运营平均速度由约10公里/小时提高到平均15-17公里/小时,快速公交最快线路平均运行速度达22.5公里/小时。
  • 公交线网覆盖面进一步扩大。至2009年底,济南市公交总公司共拥有各类公交线路188条,线路全长3354.2公里,网长达到1039公里,快速公交线网长度73 公里。BRT-1至6号线相继开通试运行,初步形成“三横三纵”网络,BRT日客运量超过20万人次,济南市成为全国首座形成BRT网络的城市,BRT系统建设荣获山东省人居环境奖。济南市公共交通逐步形成以BRT为骨干,常规普通线路为主体,大站快速线、小区线、郊区线路为补充的线网架构。2009年济南城市公交日均客运量达到220万余人次,全年完成客运量8.04亿人次,较2005年增长约41.5%,公共交通在日常出行中发挥了日益重要的作用。
parking lot
Parking lot
  • Parking lot (Commonwealth English: car park), also known as car lot, is a cleared area that is more or less level and is intended for parking vehicles. Usually, the term refers to a dedicated area that has been provided with a durable or semi-durable surface.
  • The usual parking lot is paved with asphalt. Some are paved with concrete. Many are gravel lots. A few of the newer lots are surfaced with permeable paving materials.
  • Parking lots have their own special type of engineering. While parking lots have traditionally been an overlooked element of development projects by governmental oversight, the recent trend has been to provide regulations for the configuration and spacing of parking lots, their landscaping, and drainage and pollution abatement issues.
  • The arrangement of the parking spaces relative to the driving lanes can feature perpendicular parking spaces, angle parking (most common in North America, especially in large lots), or parallel parking (least common in parking lots, and usually only for a few spaces), or possibly some combination of these.

Diagram of example parking lot layout with angle parking

as seen from above. White arrows show direction of allowed travel in each lane

Parking lot in Manhattan, United States with capacity increased thorugh multiple level stacked parking using mechanical lifts
environmental considerations
Environmental considerations
  • Parking lots tend to be sources of water pollution because of their extensive impervious surfaces. Virtually all of the rain (minus evaporation) that falls becomes urban runoff. To avoid flooding and unsafe driving conditions, the lots are built to effectively channel and collect runoff. Parking lots, along with roads, are often the principal source of water pollution in urban areas.
  • Traditionally, the runoff has been shunted directly into storm sewers, streams, dry wells or even sanitary sewers. However, most larger municipalities now require construction of stormwater management facilities for new lots.
  • An alternative solution today is to use permeable paving surfaces, such as brick, pervious concrete, stone, special paving blocks, or tire-tread woven mats. These materials allow rain to soak into the ground through the spaces inherent in the parking lot surface.
  • Some parking lots have charging stations for battery vehicles. Some regions with especially cold winters provide electricity at most parking spots for engine block heaters, as antifreeze may be inadequate to prevent freezing.