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  1. Other Elasticity Concepts How much of a shift?

  2. Other Elasticity Concepts • Other elasticities can be useful in specifying the effects of a shift factor of demand: • Income elasticity of demand. • Cross-price elasticity of demand.

  3. Income Elasticity of Demand • Income elasticity of demand – the percentage change in demand divided by the percentage change in income.

  4. Income Elasticity of Demand • Income elasticity of demand tells us the responsiveness of demand to changes in income.

  5. Income Elasticity of Demand • An increase in income generally increases one’s consumption of almost all goods. • The increase may be greater for some goods than for others.

  6. Income Elasticity of Demand • Normal goods are those whose consumption increases with an increase in income. • They have income elasticities greater than zero.

  7. Income Elasticity of Demand • Normal goods are divided into luxuries and necessities.

  8. Income Elasticity of Demand • Luxuries are goods that have an income elasticity greater than one. • Their percentage increase in demand is greater than the percentage increase in income.

  9. Income Elasticity of Demand • A necessity has an income elasticity less than 1. • The consumption of a necessity rises by a smaller proportion than the rise in income.

  10. Income Elasticity of Demand • Inferiorgoods are those whose consumption decreases when income increases. • Inferior goods have income elasticities less than zero.

  11. Income elasticity Product Short Run Long Run Motion pictures 0.81 3.41 Foreign travel 0.24 3.09 Tobacco products 0.21 0.86 Furniture 2.60 0.53 Jewelry and watches 1.00 1.64 Income Elasticities of Selected Goods Hard liquor — 2.50 Private university tuition — 1.10

  12. Other Demand Elasticities • Income Elasticity of Demand:the percentage change in the quantity demanded divided by the percentage change in income. • Normal goods: goods for which the income elasticity of demand is positive. • Inferior goods: Goods for which the income elasticity of demand is negative.

  13. Necessities and Luxuries • Goods with lower income elasticities are often called necessities, since the quantities demanded don’t vary much with income. • Typical income elasticities are 0.4 or 0.5. • Goods with higher income elasticities are often called luxuries, since people give them up readily when their incomes fall. • Typical elasticities are 1.5 to 2.0.

  14. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand • Cross-price elasticity of demand – the percentage change in demand divided by the percentage change in the price of another good.

  15. Cross-Price Elasticity of Demand • Cross-price elasticity of demand tells us the responsiveness of demand to changes in prices of other goods.

  16. Complements and Substitutes • Substitutes are goods that can be used in place of another. • Substitutes have positive cross-price elasticities.

  17. Complements and Substitutes • Complementsare goods that are used in conjunction with other goods. • Complements have negative cross-price elasticities.

  18. Cross-Price Elasticities Cross-Price Commodities Elasticity Beef in response to price change in pork 0.11 Beef in response to price change in chicken 0.02 U.S. cars in response to price changes in European and Asian automobiles 0.28 European automobiles in response to price changes in U.S. and Asian automobiles 0.61 Beer in response to changes in wine 0.23 Hard liquor in response to price changes in beer - 0.11

  19. P0 P0 Shift due to 20% rise in income D1 D0 20 26 Quantity Calculating Income Elasticity

  20. Calculating Cross-Price Elasticity D1 D0 P0 P0 Shift due to 33% rise in price of pork 104 108 Quantity of Beef

  21. Elasticity and Shifting Supply and Demand • The more elastic the demand (supply), the greater the effect of a supply (demand) shift on quantity, and the smaller the effect on price.

  22. Effects of Shifts in Supply on Price and Quantity Inelastic Demand Elastic Demand D S0 S1 S0 Price Price S1 D P0 P0 P1 P1 Q0 Q1 Q0 Q1 Quantity Quantity