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Flow and transport of gases, CO2, NAPL and nano-particles in fracture systems on the local and multiple-fracture scales. Auli Niemi , Chin-Fu Tsang Fritjof Fagerlund, Zhibing Yang, Prabhakar Sharma, Martin Larsson UPPSALA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES NGL ANNUAL SCIENCE MEETING

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Auli Niemi , Chin-Fu Tsang Fritjof Fagerlund, Zhibing Yang, Prabhakar Sharma, Martin Larsson


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  1. Flow and transport of gases, CO2, NAPL and nano-particles in fracture systems on the local and multiple-fracture scales Auli Niemi, Chin-Fu Tsang Fritjof Fagerlund, Zhibing Yang, Prabhakar Sharma, Martin Larsson UPPSALA UNIVERSITYDEPARTMENT OF EARTH SCIENCES NGL ANNUAL SCIENCE MEETING Oskarshamn, 7-8th of November 2013

  2. MAIN INTEREST: study of flow and transport of Gases, CO2, NAPL and Nano-particles in fracture systems on the local and multiple fracture scales LOCAL FRACTURE SCALE:Variable-aperture single fractures; Complex fractures (with internal structures); Fracture zones MULTIPLE FRACTURE SCALE; Fracture intersections; Fracture networks – sparse; Fracture networks – dense

  3. Flow and Transport • Gases; relative permeability, capillary pressure effects, etc. • CO2: added effects of phase change, solubility, dense brine with dissolved CO2, possible presence of mixture gases, fluid immobilization and entrapment etc. • NAPL: multiple components and multiple phase effects, fluid immobilization and entrapment, interface characterization, interface mass transfer, dissolution etc. • Nano-particles: pore-scale effects, effect of roughness of fracture surfaces, mixing of solutes, colloids, effect of unsaturated fractures (can be coupled with gas injection), etc. • Characterization of trapped fluids (NAPL or CO2) using, e.g., partitioning tracer techniques

  4. Outline Examples of our recent/ongoing work on example topics; CO2 geological storage, solute and NAPL transport in fractures and nanoparticle transport Possibilities for NGL

  5. Geological storage of CO2 CO2 > 800 m A sufficiently impermeable seal (cap rock) Several kilometers A sufficiently permeable reservoir rock Supercritical CO2 Brine

  6. How is CO2 stored in the deepaquifer?

  7. How is CO2 stored in the deepaquifer? CO2 CO2 gets physically trapped beneath the sealing cap-rock and low permeability layers

  8. How is CO2 stored in the deepaquifer? CO2 CO2 gets trapped as immobile isolated residual ’blobs’ in the pore space CO2 gets physically trapped beneath the sealing cap-rock and low permeability layers

  9. How is CO2 stored in the deepaquifer? CO2 CO2 gets physically trapped beneath the sealing cap-rock and low permeability layers CO2 gets trapped as immobile isolated residual ’blobs’ in the pore space CO2 dissolves into water

  10. How is CO2 stored in the deepaquifer? CO2 CO2 gets physically trapped beneath the sealing cap-rock and low permeability layers CO2 gets trapped as immobile isolated residual ’blobs’ in the pore space CO2 dissolves into water CO2 converts into solid minerals

  11. CO2 Geological Storage Ongoing EU FP7 projects MUSTANG – large-scale integrating project for quantifying Saline Aquifers for CO2 Geological Storage (2009-2014) Panacea – project focusing on long term effects of CO2 Geological Storage (2012-2014) TRUST– project continuing and expanding the field experimentof MUSTANG (2012-2017) CO2QUEST– project focusing on effect of impurities of CO2 stream (2013- 2016) Pre-feasibility studies in Sweden financed by the Swedish Energy Authority SwedeStoreCO2; to look at possibilities for a pilot scale injection experiment in the Swedish territory BASTOR; to look at possibilities to store CO2 in the Baltic Sea region

  12. MUSTANG project • MUSTANG is a large-scaleintegrating EU FP7 R&D project (2009-2014), with 19 partners and 25 affiliatedorganizatons (coordinated by Uppsala University) • Objective: to developmethodology and understandingfor the quantification of salineaquifers for CO2 geologicalstorage • 7 field sites including • onedeepinjection experiment • and oneshallowinjection experiment • of CO2, as well as strong • laboratory experiment, process understanding and modelingcomponents • Webb-site : www.co2mustang.eu Test sites

  13. Heletz deep CO2 injection experiment Scientifically motivated CO2 injectionexperiment of scCO2 injection to a reservoir layer at 1600 m depth, with sophisticated monitoring and sampling

  14. CO2 injection experiment Objectives • To gain understanding and develop methods to determine the two key trapping mechanisms of CO2 (residual trapping and dissolution trapping) at field scale, impact of heterogeneity • Validation of predictive models, measurement and monitoring techniques wells for field experiments

  15. Determine in-situ residual and dissolution trapping parameters injection-withdrawal of scCO2 and brine 1. 2. push-pull dipole scCO2, brine & tracers sc CO2 zone of residual trapped scCO2 • Reduced influence of formation heterogeneity • Heterogeneity affects migration and trapping • Hydraulic tests • Thermal tests • Tracer tests residual trapping residual trapping residual & dissolution trapping, (& interfacial area)

  16. CO2 Geological Storage Ongoing EU FP7 projects MUSTANG – large-scaleintegratingproject for quantifyingSalineAquifers for CO2 GeologicalStorage (2009-2014) Panacea – projectfocusing on long term effectsof CO2 GeologicalStorage (2012-2014) (www.panacea-co2.org) TRUST– projectcontinuing and expanding the field experimentof MUSTANG (2012-2017)(http://trust-co2.org) CO2QUEST– projectfocusing on effectofimpuritiesof CO2 stream (2013- 2016) (www.co2quest.eu) Pre-feasibility studies in Sweden financedby the Swedish Energy Authority SwedeStoreCO2; to look at possibilities for a pilot scaleinjection experiment in the Swedish territory BASTOR; to look at possibilities to store CO2 in the Baltic Sea region

  17. CO2 Geological Storage Ongoing EU FP7 projects MUSTANG – large-scaleintegratingproject for quantifyingSalineAquifers for CO2 GeologicalStorage (2009-2014) Panacea – projectfocusing on long term effectsof CO2 GeologicalStorage (2012-2014) TRUST – projectcontinuing and expanding the field experiment of MUSTANG (2012-2017) CO2QUEST – projectfocusing on effectofimpuritiesof CO2 stream (2013- 2016) Pre-feasibility studies in Sweden financedby the Swedish Energy Authority SwedeStoreCO2; to look at possibilities for a pilot scaleinjection experiment in the Swedish territory BASTOR; to look at possibilities to store CO2 in the Baltic Sea region

  18. Possibilities to store CO2 in Sweden/Baltic • two feasibility studies 2012-2013, financed by the Swedish Energy Authority • SwedeStoreCO2; to look at possibilities for a pilot scale injection experiment in the Swedish territory • BASTOR; to look at possibilities to store CO2 in the Baltic Sea - so far financing by Finland and Sweden - contact person Per Arne Nilsson, PanaWare Erlström et al, 2011 Vernon et al, 2013

  19. NGL related questions – CO2 storage • Integrity of the sealing cap-rock is crucial for the performance of the storage • Need to understand the characteristics of fractures and fracture zones possibly intersecting the cap-rock • flow through existing fractures and the related hydro-mechanical-chemical processes (opening/sealing of the fractures) • possible creation of new fractures and re-activation of existing fractures/fracture zones due to mechanical effects • NGL would provide opportunities observing gas/multiphase flow and trapping as well as brine migration in real fractures

  20. Chemical alterations of caprock fracture fractures when brine saturated with CO2 flowing throuh CO2 (supercritical and gaseous) flow through caprock fractures ; comparison of laboratory experments to natural analogue sites Gouze et al, 2012 Hydro-thermo-mechanical effects Edlmann et al www.co2mustang.eu

  21. Solute Transport in Fractures- study of flow-wetted surface as a function of fracture aperture statistics Larsson, M. et al (2013) A new approach to account for fracture aperture variability when modeling solute transport in fracture networks WRR 49(4), Pp. 2241-2252   Larsson et al (2012) A study of flow-wetted surface area in a single fracture as a function of its hydraulic conductivity distribution WRR 48(1)DOI: 10.1029/2011WR010686

  22. Solute Transport in Fractures- determining of flow-wetted surfacefrom SWIW tests the specific flow-wetted surface, can be determined by matching the observed breakthrough curve for a heterogeneous fracture to that for a homogeneous fracture with an equivalent property parameter. Larsson, M et al (2013), Understanding the effect of single fracture heterogeneity from single well injection withdrawal (SWIW) tests. Hydrogeology Journal, DOI 10.1007/s10040-013-0988-x.

  23. NAPLTransport in Fractures Release Receptor GW flow Dissolved plume Fractured bedrock Trapped residual blobs in fractures DNAPL pool in dead-end fractures Two fundamental processes: Fluid displacement (How DNAPL migrates) Interphase mass transfer (How DNAPL dissolves) Variable-aperture fracture φ g b aperture

  24. NAPLTransport in Fractures • Modeling of NAPL infiltrationanddissolution in heterogenenousfractures, develop a generalapproachforflowanddissolution • Howdoesfractureroughnessinfluence NAPL distributionandthedissolutionprocess? • Estimationof NAPL presencefromobservationsofdissolvedconcentrations in thewater • Whatfracture geometries leadto fast dissolutionsandwhat geometries makedissolutiondifficult?

  25. NAPLTransport in Fractures • entrapment and • dissolution in heterogeneous • fractures Yang, Z et al (2012) Jour Cont Hydrol, 133:1-16. Yang, Z. et al (2012)  WRR  48, W09507. Yang, Z. et al (2013) Two-phase flow in rough-walled fractures: Comparison of continuum and invasion-percolation models. WRR 49(2) Pp 993-1002

  26. DNAPL dissolution experiment Analog fracture cell Light transmission system Aperture field, mm Entrapped TCE Initial condition for DNAPL dissolution Yang, Z et al (2013) Dissolution of dense non-aqueous phase liquids in vertical fractures: Effect of finger residuals and dead- end pools. Journ Cont Hydrol Vol:149, Pp 88-99

  27. Nanoparticles (NPs) • Use of nanoparticles is accelerating in a wide range products & technological applications • Toxicity and transport behaviour in the environment largely unknown, particularly in complex media such as fractured rocks • Particles can act as carriers of other contaminants, including e.g. radionuclides • Extreme surface area per unit weight: • extreme capacity for surface reactions • different behaviour than larger particles 2 mg, aggregated 2 mg, dispersed

  28. NP transport in fractures saturated system • Critical to understand the mechanisms of NP transport & mobilization in fractures • Particle interactions with both rock surfaces and other contaminants • Particle-mediated transport e.g. from nuclear waste repository? • Density-driven flow, heterogeneity & channelling unsaturated system • Altered transport behaviour in the presence of a gas phase • NP attachment at the liquid-gas interfaces

  29. Experiments & laboratory at UU Dark box light panel relay / control unit outflow • Light-transmission system to study 2D flow & transport processes – quantification of aperture, concentrations & fluid saturations • Experiments in well-characterized, variable aperture fractures fracture replica camera injection fluid pump background fluid pump computer

  30. USE OF NGL FACILITY • For local scale; selection of different types of fractures, complex fractures, and fracture zones in the Äspö tunnel • For multiple fracture scale; selection of different types of fracture intersections, sparse fracture networks and dense fracture networks in the Äspö tunnel • Study at locations at different depths from close to surface to 460-m depth • Study at different scales • Study of multiple locations to explore effects of spatial heterogeneity • Use of Äspö tunnel as sink by injection into rocks and observing emergence in the tunnel (and also possibly land surface)

  31. RELEVANT ONGOING PROJECTS CO2 geological storage • Four major EU FP7 projects, as coordinator or WP leader; MUSTANG 2009-2014, Panacea 2012-2014, TRUST 2012- 2017, CO2QUEST 2013-2016 • Two pre-feasibility studies investigating CO2 geological storage in Sweden/Baltic; SwedestoreCO2 and Bastor, both funded by Energimyndigheten • Research Councils (VR) strategic funds for CO2 research (2011-2014) Deep hydrogeology of fractured rocks • Coupled effects in deep hydrologelogical systems, funded by SGU (2013-2015) Some of the fracture studies presented above were funded by earlier FORMAS (flow welled surface analyses) and by VR (NAPL transport) projects

  32. Thank you for your attention !