Flight Software Through the Looking Glass. Scott Burleigh Jet Propulsion Laboratory California Institute of Technology 12 Dec ember 2013.
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Jet Propulsion Laboratory
California Institute of Technology
This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. (c) 2013 California Institute of Technology. Government sponsorship acknowledged.
We all know that real-time flight software is indispensable to spacecraft operations. It drives the hardware of a robotic vehicle and its instruments, and it has been present since deployment of the first flight computer.
As missions become more capable, a second system emerges. It’s a non-real-time system that manages data.
The software we usually think of when we say “flight software” is the real-time, safety-critical, interrupt-driven foreground system.
The other part of “flight software” – which we typically don’t recognize as being different in nature – is the non-real-time, discretionary, time-sharing background system.
Scheduling theory tells us that the real-time tasks’ time allocations should add up to no more than about 60% of CPU time, to ensure they never miss deadlines.
The remaining 40% of CPU – “idle time” – isn’t necessarily idle. It’s time that is available for interruptible tasks, the second system.
That second system should include everything that is not truly real-time.
The Flight Software architecture of the Curiosity rover is clearly an excellent approach to the design of a FSW real-time system (but other good approaches are possible).
Postulate: the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) architecture, an implementation of Delay-Tolerant Networking, is a good approach to the design of a FSW non-real-time system (but again other good approaches are possible).
bundles for delivery
bundles to be forwarded
The foreground and background systems of a spacecraft’s FSW share many qualities that distinguish them – both – from workstation or PC software.
But in some ways the character of the background system is the exact inverse of the character of the real-time FSW.
And the two can coexist in perfect compatibility. It’s been demonstrated.
Data sharing requires mutual exclusion, so it’s no good in the foreground system.
In the background system, lengthy mutual exclusion is okay – so shared access to data is okay.
Which is good, because shared access is also the fastest way multiple tasks can operate on the same data.
system and earth