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  1. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences National Center for Education Statistics Monitoring the Educational Progress of Racial/Ethnic Minorities: The United States ExperienceRoma Conference 2003June 29-July 1 2003This paper is intended to promote the exchange of ideas among researchers and policy makers. The views expressed in it are part of ongoing research and analysis and do not necessarily reflect the position of the U.S. Department of Education.

  2. INTRODUCTION This presentation will address the following questions posed by the conference: • Why are racial/ethnic data collected? How are they used? • What has been the experience of the United States? • How can data be used to inform national policy development?

  3. INTRODUCTION To address these questions, the presentation will provide: • A rationale for racial/ethnic data • An historical perspective • Current data standards • Issues in collecting racial/ethnic data • Indicators of educational performance and schooling contexts • Current policy uses

  4. RATIONALEWhy racial/ethnic data are collected • Race and ethnicity can be considered an indicator of complex social processes that end up stratifying individuals and providing them with differential access to opportunities and resources. • Data collected are necessary to evaluate inequalities across groups and identify the needed changes. SOURCE: American Sociological Association. 2003. The Importance of Collecting Data and Doing Social Scientific Research on Race. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.

  5. HISTORY U.S. Census and history of racial/ethnic data collection • Racial data have been collected since the first census in 1790. Representation policy and tax collection mandates guided data collection by giving different consideration to Black slaves. • Data collection varied widely by state, with some states adopting additional race categories. SOURCE: Bennett, Claudette. 2000. “Racial Categories Used in the Decennial Censuses, 1790 to Present,” Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 161-180.

  6. HISTORYU.S. Census and history of racial/ethnic data collection • When the official Census Board was created in 1850, additional categories were added and amended over the next 50 years. SOURCE: Bennett, Claudette. 2000. “Racial Categories Used in the Decennial Censuses, 1790 to Present,” Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 161-180.

  7. HISTORYU.S. Census and history of racial/ethnic data collection 1950 to 2000 • Beginning in 1960, census data collection was completed primarily via mail and self identification was the primary means of collecting race information. • Category options were expanded; however, data tabulation and category combinations varied until the 1980s. • In 1977, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) first outlined federal standards for reporting race and ethnicity. These standards continue to be modified, yet have assured inter-agency consistency. SOURCE: Bennett, Claudette. 2000. “Racial Categories Used in the Decennial Censuses, 1790 to Present,” Government Information Quarterly, Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 161-180.

  8. HISTORYPercent of 5- to 19-year olds enrolled in school, by race: 1850 to 2001 Percent enrolled SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 120 Years of American Education: A Statistical Portrait, 1993; and unpublished tabulations.

  9. DATA STANDARDSRecent review and revisions to data collection guidelines as result of public comment • Interest groups expressed criticism that guidelines did not reflect the increasing diversity of the U.S. resulting from inter-racial marriages and immigration. • During the 1990s, OMB conducted a comprehensive review of standards and several government agencies conducted usability studies on race survey questions. • New guidelines were developed in 1997 and agency compliance was expected by January 2003. SOURCE: U.S Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, “Revisions to the Standards for Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity,” 2000

  10. DATA STANDARDS1997 OMB definitions of race\ethnic categories White- A person having origins in any of the original peoples of Europe, the Middle East, or North Africa. Black or African American - A person having origins in any of the Black racial groups of Africa. Hispanic or Latino - A person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, South or Central American, or other Spanish culture or origin, regardless of race. Asian - a person having origins in any of the original peoples of he Far East, Southeast Asia, or the Indian subcontinent. American Indian or Alaska Native – a person having origins in any of the original peoples of North and South America and who maintains tribal affiliation or community attachment. Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander - A person having origins in any of the original peoples ofHawaii, Guam, Samoa, or other Pacific Islands.

  11. CURRENT ISSUES IN DATA COLLECTIONRecent revisions to data collection guidelines • OMB maintained that the minimum categories be retained; however, collection of more detailed information is permitted so long as the groups can be aggregated into the minimum categories. • Rather than creating a multiracial category, individuals are able to select more than one category. There are 64 potential combinations for the 5 racial groups and 2 ethnicities. • Agencies are encouraged to provide as much detail as possible about the distribution of multiple responses. SOURCE: U.S Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, “Revisions to the Standards for Classification of Federal Data on Race and Ethnicity,” 2000.

  12. CURRENT ISSUES IN DATA COLLECTIONMaintaining respondent confidentiality • The distinctiveness of racial categories may increase the likelihood of obtaining individually identifiable information • Confidentiality of education data is protected by law: - the Privacy Act of 1974 - the E-Government Act of 2002 - the Education Sciences Reform Act of 2002 • The U.S. Patriot Act of 2001 allows the U.S. Attorney General to access individually identifiable data relevant to terrorism investigations. SOURCE: U.S Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, NCES Statistical Standards, 2002.

  13. INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND PROGRESS Student performance • National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) reports achievement scores by race/ethnic subgroups and provides information about trends in score differences between subgroups in order to present information about achievement gaps. Trends in differences between White and Black students‘ average scores (White minus Black): 1971 to 1999 YEAR Statistically different from gap in 1999 SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, National Assessment of Progress (NAEP), 1999 Trends in Academic Progress.

  14. INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND PROGRESSProgram for International Student Assessment (PISA) • Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) does not provide racial subgroup comparisons across all countries. • However, race and ethnicity data can be collected through country specific supplemental surveys. This practice seems to be limited to English speaking countries.

  15. INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND PROGRESSProgram for International Student Assessment (PISA) • Several factors contribute to the lack of international definition standards - Lack of consensus regarding definition - Variance in demographic composition - Confidentiality and privacy concerns

  16. INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE AND PROGRESSProgress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) U.S. fourth graders’ average (PIRLS) scores, by race/ethnicity: 2001 Average scale score International average (500) NOTE: Race categories exclude Hispanic origin unless specified. SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS) 2001.

  17. PIRLS 4th grade achievement, by race/ethnicity: 2001 U.S. White 565 U.S. Hispanic 517 U.S. Black 502 Average is statistically significantly higher than the subgroup average Average is not statistically significantly different from the subgroup average Average is statistically significantly lower than the subgroup average SOURCE: International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, Progress in International Reading Literacy Study (PIRLS), 2001.

  18. INDICATORS OF SOCIAL CONTEXT FOR EDUCATIONPercent of kindergarteners with two or more risk factors, by race/ethnicity: Fall 1998 The percentage of first-time kindergartners with two or more risk factors is about five times greater for Hispanics (33 percent) and four times greater for Blacks (27 percent) than for their White peers (6 percent). Percent SOURCE: U.S Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, 2000; based on Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99, Fall 1998.

  19. INDICATORS OF SCHOOLING CONTEXTS Percent of elementary/secondary school students in schools with 50 percent or more minority, by race/ethnicity: Fall 2000 Black and Hispanic students are more likely to attend schools where minorities comprise the majority of enrollment. Nearly 80 percent of Hispanics and 70 percent of Blacks attended schools were the minority population was more than 50 percent, compared to 11 percent of Whites. Percent SOURCE: U.S Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Status and Trends in the Education of Hispanics; based on unpublished data from the Common Core of Data, 2000-01.

  20. INDICATORS OF SCHOOLING CONTEXTS Percent of 4th grade students in schools where 50 percent or more of students are low-income, by race/ethnicity: 2000 Nearly 60 percent of Hispanics and American Indian/Alaska Native students, and over 70 percent of Blacks attended schools where 50 percent or more of the student population was low income. By comparison, some 20 percent of Whites attended such schools. Percent SOURCE: U.S Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Status and Trends in the Education of Hispanics; based on National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP), 2000 Reading Assessment.

  21. INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Percent of secondary school dropouts among persons 16 to 24 years old, by race/ethnicity: 1970 to 2001 The proportion of 16-to 24 –year olds who had not completed secondary school declined between 1970 and 2001. The dropout rate for Blacks declined more rapidly than the rate for Whites, from 19 percent in 1980 to 11 percent in 2001. Percent SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Digest of Education Statistics, 2001.

  22. INDICATORS OF EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Percentage of 25- to 29-year-olds with a university or higher degree (ISCED 5A or 6) or higher, by race/ethnicity: March 1971 to 2001 Although the percentage of young adults with a university or higher degree increased for all three racial/ethnic groups, the Black and Hispanic gaps with Whites widened slightly. Percent SOURCE: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education 2002.

  23. INDICATORS OF SOCIAL CONTEXTS FOR EDUCATIONVoting rates for persons 18 years old and over, by race/ethnicity and highest level of education completed: November 2000 While higher educational attainment is associated with higher voting rates, Hispanics report lower rates than those for Whites and Blacks at each level. Percent SOURCE: U.S Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Status and Trends in the Education of Hispanics; based on U.S. Department of Commerce, Census Bureau, Reported Voting and Registration, by Race, Hispanic Origin, Sex, and Educational Attainment: November 2000. Table 6, based on Current Population Survey, November 2000 supplement.

  24. CURRENT POLICY USESNo Child Left Behind • No Child Left Behind (NCLB) was created in response to underachieving students, schools, and school districts. It requires state testing for all students in grades 3-8. Disaggregated scores by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and disability status will provide information about specific subgroup achievement levels. • The law holds schools accountable for student achievement and requires academic progress for every subgroup. • The precedent for NCLB was set by specific states such as Texas, North Carolina, and California that implemented accountability systems that required achievement gains for all subgroups.

  25. CURRENT POLICY USESTexas school report card

  26. CONTACT INFORMATION Val Plisko Associate Commissioner National Center for Education Statistics Institute of Education Sciences U.S. Department of Education 202 502 7434 Valena.plisko@ed.gov THANK YOU.