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Unit 6 Radioactivity and Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Changes. Chapter 10.1. What is Radioactivity?. Radioactivity. Radioactivity. Radioactive decay is the disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus into one or more different nuclides .

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nuclear changes

Nuclear Changes

Chapter 10.1

radioactivity1
Radioactivity
  • Radioactive decay is the disintegration of an unstable atomic nucleus into one or more different nuclides.
  • After radioactive decay, the element changes into a different isotope of the same element or into an entirely different element.
radioactivity2
Radioactivity
  • Nuclear radiation is the release of particles from the nucleus during radioactive decay.
  • These particles can either be alpha, beta, or gammaparticles.
types of radiation
Types of Radiation
  • Alpha particles can be stopped by paper.
  • Beta particles can be stopped by aluminum.
  • Gamma particles can be stopped by lead.
alpha decay
Alpha Decay
  • Alpha particle (α) is a positively charged particle that consists of two protons and two neutrons and that is emitted from a nucleus during radioactive decay.
  • This is a helium nucleus.
slide9

Alpha Decay

(Atomic Mass #)

(Atomic #)

3. Since the atomic # = 82, then

beta decay
Beta Decay
  • Beta particle (β) is an electron or positronthat is emitted from a nucleus during radioactive decay.
  • A positron is a positivelycharged electron, NOTa proton.
slide11

Beta Decay

(Atomic Mass #)

(Atomic #)

3. Since the atomic # = 84, then

gamma decay
Gamma Decay
  • Gamma ray (γ) is a high-energy photon emitted by a nucleus during fission and radioactive decay.
  • Aphotonis a packet of electromagnetic radiation or energy.
slide13

Gamma Decay

(Atomic Mass #)

(Atomic #)

3. Since the atomic # = 84, then

neutron emission
Neutron Emission
  • Neutron emission consists of matter that is emitted from an unstable nucleus
  • Neutronshave no charge, and therefore do not want to interact with other particles.
how old are rocks
How old are rocks?
  • If you were asked to determine the age of a rock, you would probably not be able to do so easily.
  • How, then, would you go about finding the rock’s age?
radioactive decay rates
Radioactive Decay Rates
  • One way to find the age involves radioactive decay.
  • It is possible to predict the time required for half of the nuclei in a given radioactive sample to decay.
  • Half-life is the time required for half of the sample of a radioactive isotope to break down by radioactive decay to form a daughter isotope.
half life and exponential decay
Half-Life and Exponential Decay
  • The definition of half-lifetells us that after the first half-life time of a radioactive sample has passed, halfof the sample remains unchanged.
  • After the next half-life, half of the remaining half decays, so only a quarterof the original element remains.
  • Of that quarter, half will decay in the next half-life, so only one-eighth will remain unchanged
  • This relationship is called exponential decay.
half life equations
Half-Life Equations

Half- Life Fractions

1st = 1/2

# of 2nd = 1/4

HL’s3rd = 1/8

4th = 1/16

5th = 1/32

1st = 1/2

2nd= 1/4

3rd = 1/8

4th = 1/16

5th = 1/32