Police Roles and Organization The History of Policing Local, State, and Federal Law Enforcement
Where were the first police? • Pledge Systems were used in the • Middle Ages. • Tithings were groups of people (usually ten families) that pledged to offer mutual support and protection against minor crimes and fires. • Ten tithings were grouped as Hundreds supervised by a constable appointed by the local noble.
The Watch System • Most law enforcement done by constables. • Used Watchmen who patrolled neighborhoods at night. • Usually members of the tithings.
1829 - London, England. Sir Robert Peel. 1000 men organized in military lines with uniforms and duties to protect society. Modern Policing
Modern Policing • First American police force in 1838, Boston. • Primary duty - crowd control. Keep riots down. • No real order. Appointments were based on politics, not skills.
Modern Policing • Police work primitive and low pay. • No training offered. • Mostly bounty hunters. • 19th Century thought corrupt and incompetent by most.
Modern PolicingChanges in 20th Century • Removal of political appointments. • Civil service tests for promotion. • More training, organization and supervision of officers. • Specialized squads - homicide, vice, etc.
Federal Law EnforcementThe Justice Department • Headed by the Attorney General. • Alberto Gonzales • Enforce all federal laws. • Represent U.S. in federal court. • Conduct investigations.
Civil Rights Division - investigates cases of discrimination based on race, creed, ethnicity, or sex. Proceeds with cases. Investigative Division includes FBI and DEA. Tax Division - proceeds against tax violators Criminal Division - prosecutes violations of federal codes like bank robberies of FDIC banks, drugs, etc. Divisions of Justice Department