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  1. Warm up. Name that symmetry

  2. Answer: Bilateral

  3. Answer: Radial

  4. Answer: Radial

  5. Sea sponge Answer: Asymmetry! Asymmetry – non-symmetrical

  6. "I drink no more than a sponge" Francis Rabelais Phylum: Porifera Adapted from: sfubiology 306 and http://www.slideshare.net/msoonscience/biol-11-lesson-2-feb-3-ch-26-phylum-porifera-sponges-6805865

  7. Phylum Porifera • From Greek ‘poros’ meaning ‘passage’ or ‘pore’ Sponges have tiny openings all over their body • Therefore Porifera = “pore-bearers” • Most ancient and primitive of all animals • Estimated 5000-10000 species • Most sponges are marine, some live in freshwater

  8. Where are they on the tree of life? • You tell me?

  9. “I never wanted to be different; I just wanted to be me” • Sponges are different than other animals. • Originally thought to be plants because “sessile” • Have no: Mouth, head, muscles, nervous system, digestive tract, circulatory organs, true tissue layers, organ system. • Long thought to be an evolutionary dead end however recently believed to be at the base of the animal tree of life.

  10. Sessile: “fixed in one place” http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=3a6&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1366&bih=665&tbm=isch&tbnid=yhcP4em3kwK-QM:&imgrefurl=http://www.focus.com/fyi/soul-crushing-cubicles/&docid=pCYhw3fWs4VAtM&imgurl=http://media.focus.com/images/uploaded/fyi/cubicle-1/Cubicles_1.png&w=521&h=376&ei=eOTwTpP7LcnlsQKF9YClAQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=931&vpy=328&dur=4390&hovh=191&hovw=264&tx=164&ty=125&sig=101830522278361665895&page=2&tbnh=140&tbnw=191&start=18&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:4,s:18

  11. What do they have?Why are they an animal? • Collagen- all animals use collagen as an essential structural protein • Animal embryonic development • “Motility” of most cells within the sponge

  12. Motile

  13. Structure and Function in Porifera-The 4 Cells • Epidermal cells • Pore Cells • Collar Cells (choanocyte) • Amoebocytes

  14. Epidermal - Flat cells form the outer covering. - Respire and excrete via diffusion.

  15. Pore cells - Cylindrical cells which allow water and food to enter the sponge • The flow of water is driven by current and by collar cells

  16. Collar cells (choanocyte) - Inner cell layer of a sponge - Have a flagellum which draws water into the sponge -flagellum also drives food into the collar where they are ingested into the cell body

  17. Amoebocytes • amoeba-like cells that crawl around the jellylike inner layer of the sponge • Deliver food and O2 • Absorb nutrients and remove wastes • Make SPICULES which create sponge skeleton • Carry sperm to eggs

  18. http://www.biologyjunction.com/sponges__cnidarian_notes_b1.htmhttp://www.biologyjunction.com/sponges__cnidarian_notes_b1.htm

  19. Activity • With a partner try and remember the 4 cell types • Draw the four cell types • Label their parts. • Write brief definition of what they do • Gallery walk (see other drawings get ideas how other people do their work)

  20. How does a sponge stay standing? • Spicules • Spongin

  21. Head to Head Spicules Spongin Softer sponges (like the ones you can buy to use in the bath) are made up of fibrous proteins called spongin. Some sponges contain both spicules and spongin • Created by Amoebocytes • Made from either: -chalklike calcium carbonate (CaCO3) -or glasslike silica (SiO2) • Form the delicate skeleton of the sponge

  22. Spongin Spicules

  23. Evolution of Spicules http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=aCS&sa=X&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&biw=1366&bih=665&tbm=isch&prmd=imvns&tbnid=C6U8hwr1KJAURM:&imgrefurl=http://pandasthumb.org/archives/evolution/2006/&docid=MA2k0jBWM96WVM&imgurl=http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/upload/2006/05/stroma_phylo_lg.gif&w=1280&h=909&ei=jfLwTpW0EubfsQKy1-SWAQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=317&vpy=159&dur=612&hovh=189&hovw=266&tx=130&ty=69&sig=101830522278361665895&page=1&tbnh=141&tbnw=199&start=0&ndsp=21&ved=1t:429,r:1,s:0

  24. Other key words • Spongocoel – hollow body in the sponges interior. (think coelom) • Osculum- Opening where water exits the sponge • Spicules – the skeleton of the sponge (more later)

  25. http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=5iR&sa=X&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&noj=1&tbm=isch&tbnid=dAhKznDS_q2xuM:&imgrefurl=http://train-srv.manipalu.com/wpress/%3Fp%3D86702&docid=yBD66qLS9adkjM&imgurl=http://train-srv.manipalu.com/wpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/clip-image002176.jpg&w=345&h=316&ei=aOvwTpz9O6TnsQLbkKW4AQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=182&vpy=337&dur=341&hovh=215&hovw=235&tx=137&ty=122&sig=101830522278361665895&page=1&tbnh=145&tbnw=158&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:0&biw=1366&bih=665http://www.google.com/imgres?hl=en&client=firefox-a&hs=5iR&sa=X&rls=org.mozilla:en-US:official&noj=1&tbm=isch&tbnid=dAhKznDS_q2xuM:&imgrefurl=http://train-srv.manipalu.com/wpress/%3Fp%3D86702&docid=yBD66qLS9adkjM&imgurl=http://train-srv.manipalu.com/wpress/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/clip-image002176.jpg&w=345&h=316&ei=aOvwTpz9O6TnsQLbkKW4AQ&zoom=1&iact=hc&vpx=182&vpy=337&dur=341&hovh=215&hovw=235&tx=137&ty=122&sig=101830522278361665895&page=1&tbnh=145&tbnw=158&start=0&ndsp=18&ved=1t:429,r:12,s:0&biw=1366&bih=665

  26. How does a sponge eat? • ..\..\..\Lesson Videos\Biology 11\Sponge Feeding.mov.flv

  27. How does a sponge eat? • Sponges are filter feeders – they sift microscopic food particles from the water that passes through them • All digestion is intracellular • Food particles stick to the collar cells Collar cells either digest the food or pass them on to the ? (what else digests/delivers food) Amoebocytes

  28. The water flowing through a sponge serves as its respiratory, excretory, and circulatory system. • Sponges pump huge amounts of water through their body every day • Roughly one tonne water per ounce of food

  29. Reproduction Asexual reproduction Sexual reproduction Hermaphrodites (both male and female sexual organs) Most fertilization is hermaphroditic “Broadcast” method of sperm release. Masses of sperm released into water Amoebocytes carries sperm to egg when received. • “Budding” – a small growth forms and falls off the sponge starting a new sponge • “regeneration” Sponges can regenerate from broken pieces • “Gemmules” sphere-shaped collections of amoebocytes surrounded by spicules. They leave sponge, settle, and wait for improved conditions

  30. Gemmulles • “Little gems of life”? “Survival pods”? • Remember it your way. • Sphere-shaped collections of amoebocytes surrounded by spicules • leave sponge, settle, and wait for improved conditions

  31. Gemmules • Can survive extreme temperatures or drying out • Some are resistant to freezing • Full of amoebocytes which can grow into any type of cell necessary for survival

  32. Why would sponges have evolved Gemmules?

  33. Here comes the Motility

  34. Flagellated larvae • A sponges larvae have flagellum • Leave via ? • Osculum • Drift/ swim to their new home

  35. ..\..\..\Lesson Videos\Biology 11\Sponge Spawning.flv