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Osmoregulation & Excretion. Chapter 44, pp. 931-939. From Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks. An organism’s excretory system helps regulate the chemical composition of the body’s principal fluid (blood, coelomic fluid, or hemolymph).

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slide1

Osmoregulation & Excretion

Chapter 44, pp. 931-939

From Leonardo da Vinci’s notebooks

slide2

An organism’s excretory system helps regulate the chemical composition of the body’s principal fluid (blood, coelomic fluid, or hemolymph)

The excretory system selectively removes excess water and wastes from the principal fluid

slide3

Excretory systems

Breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids produces ammonia (a toxin)

Fig. 44.8

Many aquatic organisms excrete ammonia, since it can be effectively diluted with water

Ammonia NH3

slide4

Excretory systems

Breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids produces ammonia (a toxin)

Fig. 44.8

Mammalian livers convert ammonia into urea, which is much less toxic, and requires less water to excrete

Ammonia NH3

slide5

Excretory systems

Breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids produces ammonia (a toxin)

Fig. 44.8

Birds, reptiles, and some other organisms convert ammonia into uric acid, which is relatively nontoxic, and can be excreted as a semisolid without much water loss

Ammonia NH3

slide6

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Fig. 44.9

Key functions:

Filtration

Reabsorption

Secretion

Excretion

slide7

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Blood enters the kidneys via the renal arteries and leaves via the renal veins

Urine (excess water and wastes removed from the blood) is produced by the kidneys and is conveyed to the urinary bladder via the ureters

Urine exits the body

via the urethra

Fig. 44.13

slide8

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Each kidney is divided into a cortex, medulla, and pelvis

Each kidney processes about 1000 L of blood per day!

Fig. 44.13

slide9

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Nephrons = the functional units of the kidneys

Packed into the renal cortex and medulla

Fig. 44.13

slide10

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Each kidney has ~ 1 million nephrons

Fig. 44.13

slide11

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

A nephron consists of: a ball of capillaries known as a glomerulus

Fig. 44.13

slide12

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

A nephron consists of: an afferent arteriole that leads into the glomerulus, and an efferent arteriole that leads out of the glomerulus

Fig. 44.13

slide13

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

A nephron consists of: Bowman’s capsule, that surrounds the glomerulus and extends into the proximal tubule, loop of Henle, and distal tubule

Fig. 44.13

slide14

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

A nephron consists of: capillaries that surround the tubules and loop of Henle, and that feed into venules returning to the renal vein

Fig. 44.13

slide15

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Filtration occurs in Bowman’s capsules: cells and large molecules remain in the blood, while blood pressure forces water and small molecules from the blood into Bowman’s capsules

Fig. 44.13

slide16

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Filtration occurs in Bowman’s capsules: cells and large molecules remain in the blood, while blood pressure forces water and small molecules from the blood into Bowman’s capsules

slide17

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Selective reabsorption returns important nutrients (glucose, etc.) to the blood, and occurs especially in proximal and distal tubules

Fig. 44.13

slide18

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Selective reabsorption returns important nutrients (glucose, etc.) to the blood, and occurs especially in proximal and distal tubules

Red arrows =

active transport

Blue arrows =

passive transport

Fig. 44.14

slide19

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Selective secretion adds additional waste molecules to the filtrate, especially in the tubules

Red arrows =

active transport

Blue arrows =

passive transport

Fig. 44.14

slide20

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Reabsorption of water occurs along the tubules, descending loop of Henle, and collecting duct

Red arrows =

active transport

Blue arrows =

passive transport

Fig. 44.14

slide21

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

Reabsorption of water occurs along the tubules, descending loop of Henle, and collecting duct

Red arrows =

active transport

Blue arrows =

passive transport

Fig. 44.15

slide22

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

The descending loop of Henle is permeable to water, but not very permeable to salt (e.g., NaCl)

Red arrows =

active transport

Blue arrows =

passive transport

Fig. 44.15

slide23

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

The ascending loop of Henle is not permeable to water, but it is to NaCl

Red arrows =

active transport

Blue arrows =

passive transport

Fig. 44.15

slide24

Vertebrate Excretory Systems

High concentration of NaCl outside the nephron deep in the kidneys helps concentrate urine in the collecting duct

Red arrows =

active transport

Blue arrows =

passive transport

Fig. 44.15

slide26

Mammalian excretory systems are adapted to diverse environments

Mammals that live in environments with plenty of water have short loops of Henle that cannot produce concentrated urine

slide27

Mammalian excretory systems are adapted to diverse environments

Mammals that live in very dry environments have very long loops of Henle that can produce highly concentrated urine

the endocrine system postal system for the body1
The endocrine system = postal system for the body
  • Hormones are the chemical messages that:
    • Regulate aspects of behavior
    • Regulate growth, development, &
    • differentiation
    • Maintain internal homeostatic conditions
  • 4 classes of animal hormones:
    • Peptide hormones – amino acid chains
    • Single amino acid derivatives
    • Steroid hormones – cholesterol based
    • Prostaglandins – fatty-acid based
the endocrine system postal system for the body2
The endocrine system = postal system for the body
  • Hormones are the chemical messages that:
    • Maintain internal homeostatic conditions
    • Regulate growth, development, &
    • differentiation
    • Regulate aspects of behavior
  • 4 classes of animal hormones:
    • Single amino acid derivatives
    • Peptide hormones – amino acid chains
    • Steroid hormones – cholesterol based
    • Prostaglandins – fatty-acid based
the endocrine system postal system for the body3
The endocrine system = postal system for the body
  • Hormones are the chemical messages that:
    • Maintain internal homeostatic conditions
    • Regulate growth, development, &
    • differentiation [often irreversible]
    • Regulate aspects of behavior
  • 4 classes of animal hormones:
    • Single amino acid derivatives
    • Peptide hormones – amino acid chains
    • Steroid hormones – cholesterol based
    • Prostaglandins – fatty-acid based
the endocrine system postal system for the body4
The endocrine system = postal system for the body
  • Hormones are the chemical messages that:
    • Maintain internal homeostatic conditions
    • Regulate growth, development, &
    • differentiation [often irreversible]
    • Regulate aspects of behavior [generally reversible]
the endocrine system postal system for the body5
The endocrine system = postal system for the body

Hormone-secreting organs are called endocrineglands, because they secrete their chemical messengers directly into body fluids

In contrast, exocrine glands secrete their products into ducts

Glands that secrete sweat, mucus, digestive enzymes, and milk are exocrine glands

since hormones circulate to all cells how do they act at only specific sites
Since hormones circulate to ALL cells, how do they act at only specific sites?
  • Receptors
    • Only cells with correct receptors
    • (target cells) respond to hormones
slide41

Hormones exhibit a diversity of structure and function

Peptides,

proteins,

glycoproteins,

amines,

Table45.1

slide42

Hormones exhibit a diversity of structure and function

Peptides,

proteins,

glycoproteins,

amines,

steroids

Table45.1

since hormones circulate to all cells how do they act at only specific sites1
Since hormones circulate to ALL cells, how do they act at only specific sites?
  • Receptors
    • Only cells with correct receptors
    • (target cells) respond to hormones
        • Surface receptors
        • Intracellular receptors
slide44

Surface Receptors

Most amino acid-based hormones are water soluble

and target surface receptors

A signal-transduction pathway is a series of molecular changes that converts an extracellular chemical signal to a specific intracellular response

Fig. 45.3

slide45

Intracellular Receptors

Most steroid hormones are lipid soluble and target intracellular receptors

An intracellular receptor usually performs the entire task of transducing the signal within the cell

In almost all cases, this is a transcription factor, and the response is a change in gene expression

Fig. 45.3

hypothalamus pituitary complex
Hypothalamus-Pituitary Complex

The hypothalamus receives nervous input from

throughout the body

The hypothalamus contains two sets of neurosecretory cells whose hormonal secretions are stored in or regulate the pituitary gland

The posterior pituitary stores and secretes two hormones made by the hypothalamus

The anterior pituitary consists of endocrine cells that synthesize and secrete at least 6 different hormones

hypothalamus pituitary complex1
Hypothalamus-Pituitary Complex

The hypothalamus-posterior pituitary provides an example of a simple neurohormonepathway

Pathway

Example

Stimulus

Suckling

Sensory

neuron

Hypothalamus/

posterior pituitary

Neurosecretory

cell

Oxytocin

Blood

vessel

Smooth muscle

in breast

Target

effectors

Milk release

Response

Fig. 45.2b

hypothalamus pituitary complex2
Hypothalamus-Pituitary Complex

The hypothalamus-anterior pituitary provides an example of a simple neuroendocrine pathway

Example

Pathway

Hypothalamic

neurohormone

released in

response to

neural and

hormonal

signals

Stimulus

Sensory

neuron

Hypothalamus

Neurosecretory

cell

Prolactin-

releasing

hormone

Blood

capillary

Prolactin

Endocrine

cell of pituitary

Blood

vessel

Target

effectors

Mammary glands

Milk production

Response

Fig. 45.2c

pancreas
Pancreas
  • Exocrine function
    • Digestive secretions released into pancreatic duct to small intestines
  • Endocrine function
    • Islet cells
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
pancreas1
Pancreas
  • Exocrine function
    • Digestive secretions released into pancreatic duct to small intestines
  • Endocrine function
    • Islet cells
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon
pancreas2
Pancreas
  • Exocrine function
    • Digestive secretions released into pancreatic duct to small intestines
  • Endocrine function
    • Islets of Langerhans – endocrine cells
    • Insulin
    • Glucagon

antagonistic hormones

pancreas regulates blood glucose
Pancreas regulates blood glucose
  • Insulin – decrease blood glucose
    • stimulates uptake by cells – use it or store it as fat and glycogen
  • Glucagon increase blood glucose
    • stimulates release by cells – breakdown fat and glycogen
  • Diabetes mellitis
    • defects in production, release or response to insulin
pancreas regulates blood glucose1
Pancreas regulates blood glucose
  • Insulin – decreases blood glucose
    • Stimulates uptake by cells – cells use it or store it as fat and glycogen
  • Glucagon – increase blood glucose
    • stimulates release by cells – breakdown fat and glycogen
  • Diabetes mellitis
    • defects in production, release or response to insulin
pancreas regulates blood glucose2
Pancreas regulates blood glucose
  • Insulin – decreases blood glucose
    • Stimulates uptake by cells – cells use it or store it as fat and glycogen
  • Glucagon – increases blood glucose
    • Stimulates release by cells – breakdown of fat and glycogen
  • Diabetes mellitis
    • defects in production, release or response to insulin
pancreas regulates blood glucose3
Pancreas regulates blood glucose

Pathway

Example

Pathway

Example

Example

Pathway

An example of a simple

endocrine pathway

High blood

glucose

Hypothalamic

neurohormone

released in

response to

neural and

hormonal

signals

Stimulus

Stimulus

Suckling

Stimulus

  • Diabetes mellitus (all forms)
    • Results from defects in the production, release or response to insulin

Receptor

protein

Sensory

neuron

Sensory

neuron

Pancreas

secretes

insulin

Hypothalamus/

posterior pituitary

Hypothalamus

Endocrine

cell

Neurosecretory

cell

Blood

vessel

Neurosecretory

cell

Hypothalamus

secretes prolactin-

releasing

hormone ( )

Posterior pituitary

secretes oxytocin

( )

Blood

vessel

Blood

vessel

Target

effectors

Liver

Anterior

pituitary

secretes

prolactin ( )

Smooth muscle

in breast

Target

effectors

Glycogensynthesis,glucose uptakefrom blood

Response

Endocrine

cell

Blood

vessel

(a) Simple endocrine pathway

Milk release

Response

(b) Simple neurohormone pathway

Target

effectors

Mammary glands

Milk production

Response

Fig. 45.2a

(c) Simple neuroendocrine pathway

hormone like local regulators appear to be produced by all the body s cells
Hormone-like local regulators appear to be produced by all the body’s cells…
  • These chemical messengers affect target cells adjacent to or near their point of secretion and can act very rapidly; the process is known as paracrine signaling
slide59

The same hormones are found across diverse taxaE.g., Insulin is found in bacteria, fungi, protists, etc.E.g., Thyroxin is found in many vertebrates; increases metabolism in humans & controls metamorphosis in amphibians

slide60

The same hormones are found across diverse taxaE.g., Insulin is found in bacteria, fungi, protists, etc.E.g., Thyroxin is found in many vertebrates; increases metabolism in humans & controls metamorphosis in amphibians

slide61

The same hormones are found across diverse taxaE.g., Insulin is found in bacteria, fungi, protists, etc.E.g., Thyroxin is found in many vertebrates; increases metabolism in humans & controls metamorphosis in amphibians