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Class 10: Teresa and Ignatius. Dr. Ann T. Orlando 12 February 2014. Catholic Response Main Points. Reform of corrupt practice Affirmation of basic Catholic doctrine Renewal of Catholic spiritual practice Arts in service of theology

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class 10 teresa and ignatius

Class 10: Teresa and Ignatius

Dr. Ann T. Orlando

12February 2014

catholic response main points
Catholic Response Main Points
  • Reform of corrupt practice
  • Affirmation of basic Catholic doctrine
  • Renewal of Catholic spiritual practice
  • Arts in service of theology
  • Historians are at odds what to call Catholicism in this period
    • Counter Reformation
    • Catholic Reformation
    • Early Modern Catholicism
catholic reform before reformation ximenes de cisneros 1436 1517
Catholic Reform Before Reformation: Ximenes de Cisneros (1436-1517)
  • Franciscan, Confessor to Queen Isabel
  • Extensive reform of clergy in Spain
  • Founded University of Alcala, combining Humanism and Scholasticism
    • Cervantes and Ignatius Loyola both alumni
    • Published first polyglot Bible: Latin, Hebrew; Greek, Chaldean
  • Opposed indulgence to rebuild St. Peter’s
  • Grand Inquisitor
    • Forced Baptism of Jews and Muslims
  • Briefly regent of Spain until Charles V reached majority and assumed throne
spanish reform of monasteries teresa of avila 1515 1582
Spanish Reform of Monasteries: Teresa of Avila (1515-1582)
  • One of 10 children; mother died when she was 15; her father put her into an Augustinian convent
  • After reading St. Jerome, decided to entire Carmelites
    • Shortly after suffered severe illness; dedicated herself to suffering Christ
    • Beginning of mystical visions
  • Started renewal of Carmelites with renewal of herself
    • Return to more basic monastic forms; Discalced Carmelites, 1560
    • Small group of supporters gathered around her; wrote Way of Perfection, 1565
  • Met John of Cross in 1567; encouraged him to found male version of Discalced Carmelites
  • Interior Castles description of advance of mystic in prayer and encounter with Trinity; 1577
  • Major impact of her life was after her death; famous for having prayed, “God deliver us from sullen saints!”
  • Along with Catherine of Sienna, declared Doctor of Church 1970
spirituality of teresa
Spirituality of Teresa
  • In the tradition of Christian spiritual progress: purgative, illuminative, unitive
  • Most famous description in Teresa of this is in Interior Castles
    • God thought of as residing in the inner most castle; we start in the outer most
    • Seven levels of dwelling places through which we must move to arrive at the inner-most castle
  • One moves through these dwelling places by cultivating humility and obedience to God’s Will
  • But must spend time in these dwelling places to discern God’s Will
  • Importance of friends in helping in the journey
    • Friends here below, like confessors
    • Friends above, the saints; recall Teresa’s special devotion to St. Joseph
  • Importance of keeping focused on God
teresa s bookmark prayer
Teresa’s Bookmark Prayer
  • Let nothing disturb you.Let nothing afrighten you.All things are passing.God alone is changelessHe who has patience wants for nothingHe who has God has all things.God alone suffices.
  • Teresa was a woman of action
  • The interiority and reliance on God was not one of passivity
  • Often the Will of God is a call to action, even heroic action; action which may not lead to ‘success’
  • St. Teresa recognized that being a friend of God, meant carrying the cross
ignatius loyola 1491 1556 founder of a new order
Ignatius Loyola (1491-1556); Founder of a New Order
  • Minor courtier and officer in army; 1521 severely wounded defending Pamplona from French
  • During recovery in Loyola started reading New Testament and Lives of Saints (nothing else to read!)
    • Once recovered, traveled to Montserrat where he left his sword and gave away his clothes to poor
    • Lived in a cave near Manresa; had a series of enlightening visions
    • Briefly went to Holy Land
  • Decided to return to school, study for priesthood; first at Alcala then at Salamanca
    • Imprisoned by Inquisition several times for teaching without being licensed
  • Traveled to University of Paris to continue studies
    • Shared rooms with Francis Xavier, Peter Faber
  • Gathered a group of six, Company of Jesus, and Ignatius directed them in Spiritual Exercises
  • Traveled to Rome and put themselves at disposal of Pope; approval of order given by Pope Paul III in 1540
  • Lived in Rome remainder of his life as Director General of Jesuits, by now a world-wide order
  • Canonized with Francis Xavier by Pope Gregory XV in 1622
jesuit spirituality
Jesuit Spirituality
  • Like Luther, Ignatius was overwhelmed by the profound sense of his own sin
  • Like Luther, does not believe that being a monk is a guarantee fo salvation
  • But unlike Luther, believes that salvation is found by devotion to society of Church and her mission
    • Devotion includes attacking corruption
    • Society includes those below and saints above
  • Emphasis on engaging mind and emotions
  • Emphasis on critical self-analysis
  • Call to action and commitment
the jesuits
The Jesuits
  • NOT founded to counter Reformation; but charter put Jesuits on front lines against Reformers
    • Initially sent to Palestine as missionaries
  • Education very important in Jesuit belief
    • Children and adults
  • Jesuits very focused on work among people
  • Jesuit life-style in many ways opposite that of a monastery
  • Focus on action in world, rather than contemplation in monastery
key points of jesuit charter 1541
Key Points of Jesuit Charter (1541)
  • Vow not to accept ecclesiastical dignities;
  • Special relationship to Pope
  • Increased probations. The novitiate is prolonged from one year to two, with a third year, which usually falls after the priesthood. Candidates are moreover at first admitted to simple vows only, solemn vows coming much later on;
  • The Society does not keep choir;
  • It does not have a distinctive religious habit;
  • It is also said to have been the first order to undertake officially and by virtue of its constitution active works such as the following:
      • foreign missions, at the pope's bidding;
      • the education of youth of all classes;
      • the instruction of the ignorant and the poor;
      • ministering to the sick, to prisoners, etc.
jesuits and papacy
Jesuits and Papacy
  • Jesuits become the Pope’s ‘Marines’
  • Missionaries on voyages of discovery
  • Intellectual leaders in Vatican
  • Supported new learning, new artistic techniques, in service of renewed Catholic spirituality
  • Spearheaded a new Catholic confidence
    • Saints
    • Religious Art
    • Penance
    • Indulgences (properly understood)
popes of later 16 th century
Popes of Later 16th Century
  • Paul III (1534-1549) called Council of Trent; approved Jesuit Charter, suspended council of Trent because of animosity with Charles V
  • Julius III (1550-1555) restarted, then suspended Council of Trent
  • Paul IV (1555-1559) opposed to Council
  • Pius IV (1559-1565) restarted Council of Trent; closes Council of Trent
  • St. Pius V (1565-1572) published Catechism of Council of Trent
  • Gregory XIII (1572-1585); reformed calendar; Charles Boromeo administrator
  • Sixtus V (1585-1590)
  • Clement VIII (1592-1605)
baroque art
Baroque Art
  • In some ways fueled by Jesuit spirituality
    • Emphasis on emotions and physical
    • Church of Gesu, first Baroque Church
  • Also fueled by reaction against Protestant views
    • Importance of Saints
    • Importance of images in inciting the emotions to devotion
church of the gesu
Located on site that Ignatius of Loyola selected for his Roman headquarters

Dedicated in 1584 after 40 years of construction and 6 architects including Michelangelo

Mother Church for Jesuits

Model for Jesuit churches throughout the world

Church of the Gesu
  • Massive urban renewal of Rome
  • Spectacular building projects, most of them religious
  • Primary artists
    • Francesco Borromini (1599-1667)
    • Gianlornezo Bernini (1598-1680)
bernini s rome
Bernini’s Rome
  • Fountains
  • Sculptures
  • Churches
the ultimate statement of baroque st peter s
The Ultimate Statement of Baroque: St. Peter’s
  • Note the list of great artists who worked on new St. Peter’s:
    • Alberti
    • Bramanate
    • Della Porta
    • Michelangelo
  • But the final driving force to bring the entire monumental work to completion: Bernini
  • 1. Ignatius Loyola Spiritual Exercises, Rules to Have True Sentiment in the Church available at
  • 2. Teresa of Avila. Autobiography, Teresa’s Arguments of the Chapters available at and Chapter XII available at