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Unit 4: Enzymes. It is Just Chemistry…Really FAST Chemistry. All living things require chemistry to exist: Photosynthesis ( making sugars ) Glycolysis ( breaking sugars ) Making ATP ( energy units ) How long does it take for a chemical reaction to occur in a living thing?

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it is just chemistry really fast chemistry
It is Just Chemistry…Really FAST Chemistry
  • All living things require chemistry to exist:
    • Photosynthesis (making sugars)
    • Glycolysis (breaking sugars)
    • Making ATP (energy units)
  • How long does it take for a chemical reaction to occur in a living thing?
    • 2.3 billion years
  • How long does the same reaction take with an enzyme?
    • Less than 1 second
  • Life CANNOT exist without enzymes

4.5 billion years

what is an enzyme
What is an Enzyme?
  • Biological catalysts a catalyst used in biochemistry
  • Catalyst a substance that speeds up a chemical reaction but is NOT affected by it
    • Never changed so it cannot be used up
    • Can reach a limit on how fast they can work
  • Enzymes are made of proteins
    • Few made from RNA (ribosome)
what do enzymes do
What do Enzymes do?
  • 10,000s of enzymes in a cell

1) Anabolic enzymes:

  • Build complex molecules
    • Photosynthesis changes CO2 into C6H12O6 (sugar)

2) Catabolic enzymes:

  • Break apart complex molecules
    • Glycolysis breaks sugar apart to make ATP (energy units)

3) Transformation enzymes:

  • Change one substance into another substance
    • Yeast add H+ to compounds to make alcohol
enzyme structures
Enzyme Structures
  • Lock and Key Model:
  • Substrate substance the enzyme is designed for (Key)
  • Enzyme binds with substrates to combines them, break them apart, or change them (Lock)
  • Active site site in enzyme that is designed to match the shape of the substrate (Key Hole)
  • The Key (substrate) fits in the Lock (enzyme) by entering the Key Hole (active site)
  • Only if the Key (substrate) fits the Key Hole (active site) will the Lock (enzyme) work
enzymatic rates
Enzymatic Rates
  • Enzymes can be used over and over; only a few enzymes are needed to react with lots of substrate
  • How can we increase the reaction rate?
    • Add more enzymes (share the work)
  • Why does this rate stop increasing?
    • Enzyme can only work so fast
    • It takes time to do each reaction
    • All enzymes have a maximum efficiency
enzymatic rates temperature
Enzymatic Rates: Temperature
  • What drives enzymatic rates?
    • Kinetic energy
  • Kinetic energy random movement in all atoms
    • Substrates and enzymes randomly move around and eventually join together
  • How can we increase kinetic energy in atoms?
    • Give them more energy by increasing temperature
optimum temperature
Optimum Temperature
  • All enzyme reactions slow down at low temps and increase at higher temps
  • What happens when the temperature gets too high?
    • Enzyme stops working (denatures)
  • Protein bonds chemical bonds making holding the enzyme in a specific shape
    • High temps break these bonds; enzyme unfolds and cant work (denature)
  • Optimum temperature the temp. an enzymatic rate is highest without denaturing the enzyme
    • Fungi and plants 40 oC
    • Humans 37 oC
    • Some bacteria 90 oC
optimum ph
Optimum pH
  • pH can affect the peptide bonds of an enzyme too
  • Optimum pH the pH where the enzymatic rate is highest without denaturing the enzyme
    • Varies greatly in the body
      • Blood pH = 7.4
      • Stomach pH = 2
  • If you fix the pH and temp. of a denatured enzyme, can it be used again?
    • Sometimes. Some proteins can renature. Most proteins cannot.
the properties of enzymes
The Properties of Enzymes
  • 5 Major Properties:
  • Enzymes are made of proteins
  • Enzymes catalyze one specific reaction
  • Enzymes, being catalysts, can be reused many times
  • Enzymes are influenced by temperatures (all have an optimum temperature)
  • Enzymes are influences by pH (all have an optimum pH)
using enzymes
Using Enzymes
  • Enzymes from living things can be used in production:
    • Medicine
    • Food
    • Fuel
    • Materials
  • General types:
  • Proteases break apart proteins
  • Lipases break apart fats
  • Amylases break down sugars
  • Cellulous break down cellulose (cell wall)
making medicine
Making Medicine
  • Penicillin is an antibiotic that can kill many types of bacteria
    • Fungi Penicilliummakes it through fermentation (breaking down sugar without Oxygen)
  • Fermentation Process
    • Penicilliumadded to large vessel full of sugar and nutrients
    • Stirrer mixes up insides
    • Water-cooled jacket keeps vessel at 24 oC
    • Probes keep pH at 6.5
  • After 6 days of this, penicillin can be drained from mixture
  • Cleaned and sent to hospitals
homework
Homework
  • Study to Exam on Units 1-4 on 10/8
  • Cell Projects due 10/11
  • Quizlets for Units 3 and 4
  • Homework papers on Unit 2, 3, and 4