Sponsored By: Las Animas County Cattlemen’s Association Las Animas County Health Department - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Sponsored By: Las Animas County Cattlemen’s Association Las Animas County Health Department

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  1. Domestic Water Wells in Las Animas County, ColoradoJohn Fontana, Geologist, PGVincent E. Barlock, Hydrogeologist, CPG Sponsored By: Las Animas County Cattlemen’s Association Las Animas County Health Department Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. Trinidad & Las Animas County Chamber of Commerce Trinidad State Junior College Vista GeoScience LLC

  2. Common Issues for Well Owners • Poor Water Production (Quantity) • General Water Quality • Odors and/or Taste • Color, Staining or Sediment • Natural Gas (Methane) in Water • Solutions, Testing & Maintenance • Resources Available

  3. Construction of Water Wells • Who Regulates? • Division of Water Resources (DWR) • State Engineers Office (SEO) • Permits & Well Ownership Transfers • Board of Examiners (BOE) of Water Well Construction and Pump Installation Contractors • Licensing & Certification • Construction & Design Rules • Protection of Ground Water • Your Well Permit & Construction Record Files Las Animas County

  4. Common Aquifer Types • AQUIFER:The water bearing sediment or rock your well is drilled into • Alluvial Aquifer • Stream Valley Sands and Gravels • Generally Shallower • Bedrock Aquifer • Sandstone, Siltstone, Shale or Coal • Porous or fractured Rocks • Generally Deeper

  5. Alluvial Wells • Surface Casing • Filter pack • Well Seal

  6. Bedrock Well • With a well seal & filter pack, or • Open bore completion

  7. Open Borehole Bedrock Well • Harder Formation • Steel Surface Casing • No filter-pack or Annular Seals

  8. Poor Water Production (Quantity) • Well Yield = Gallons Per Minute • 1 Gallon per Minute = 1400 Gallons per Day • Does Your Well Go Dry? • Seasonally or Under Heavy Use? • Could be from: • Tight or Low-Flowing Aquifer • Dry Season – Low Water Table • Drawdown (Over-pumping) • Fouling of the Well Screen or Pump • Pump Damage or Failure • Poor Well Design or Construction • Approaching Lifespan of the Water Well

  9. Yield in Alluvial Aquifers • Better Yield • Sands • Gravels • Poor Yield • Silts • Clays

  10. Yield in Bedrock Aquifers • Better Yield • Sandstone • Fractured Rocks • Lower Yield • Claystone (Shale) • Siltstone SHALE

  11. Seasonal Fluctuation or Drought Spring/Summer Fall/Winter • High water level • Low water level

  12. Drawdown Over-Pumping of the Aquifer NO PUMPING

  13. Fouling (blockage) of the Well Screen or Pump • Silts and Clays • Encrustation • Hard Water • Iron • Bio-Fouling • Bacteria Growth

  14. Poor Well Design or Construction • Minimum Construction Requirements were Met? • May not be adequate • Sand/Gravel Filter or Open Bore • Post-Drilling Development • (Required Cleaning after Drilling) • Adequate Bore-Hole Diameter/Depth • Casing Size & Screen Type • Is the Casing too big for the bore

  15. Solutions to Low-Yield Wells ISSUES: • Naturally Low Yielding Aquifer • Seasonal drop in ground water table, or drought • Drawdown (over-pumping of the aquifer) SOLUTIONS: • Install a Cistern • Drill a deeper well • Reduce usage

  16. Solutions to Low-Yield Wells ISSUES: • Pump Failure • Fouled Screens or Pump • Poor well design or construction • Limited lifespan of the water well SOLUTIONS: • Inspect, Repair Pump • Redevelop the well • Chemical , or • Physical Cleaning of Well • Last Resort : Drill a New Well.

  17. Limited Lifespan of a Water Well • Typically years to decades: • The Geology • Well Design/Construction • Maintenance • Normal Corrosion/ Wear & Tear • Amount of Use/Pumping

  18. General Water Quality: • Odor • Taste • Color & Sediment

  19. ODORS • My water smells! • BACTERIA! • Stagnant Water Smell • Septic Tanks Like Odors • Rotten Egg or Sulfur Smell • Bacteria + Sulfates in Well = Hydrogen Sulfide Gas • Your nose is very sensitive to this gas • SOLUTION: • Chemical treatment or other cleaning by an expert • Look around for sources • Testing, inspection, and maintenance

  20. TASTE • Tastes Metallic or Salty! • Dissolved Mineral Content • Bacteria • Nitrates • SOLUTION: • Water quality testing by an expert • Check whether some minerals are above drinking water standards. • Filtration and treatment system • See CDPHE for guidance on drinking standards.

  21. COLOR • Dissolved Minerals • Excessive Bacteria Activity • Sediment SOLUTION: • Water Quality test • Bacterial Activity Reaction Test (BART) • Chemical well treatment for bacteria issues and/or • Well filtration/treatment system for high mineral content

  22. SEDIMENT • Grit / Particulates • Cloudy Water - Settles • Causes: • Improper or damaged well screens • Poor well development: original drilling, or formation debris is getting into the well • Lack of a sand/filter pack around the screens SOLUTION: • Filtration systems/traps can remove some sediment • Redevelop and clean well if not done originally • Contact a consultant or licensed pump installer for options

  23. GAS BUBBLES • It looks like soda water! • Causes: • Dissolved Air or Natural Gas - Methane and/or Carbon Dioxide • Sources • Natural Bacteria • Coal Bed Methane • Raton & Vermejo Formation • Las Animas County, West of I-25

  24. COAL BED METHANE DESORPTION

  25. NATURAL GAS (METHANE) • Is natural gas (methane) hazardous? • Non-Toxic. • Not Regulated by EPA. • Flammable & Explosive (5% in air) • SOLUTION: • If suspected: Request a dissolved methane test. • If methane is in your water, test the air in the home. • Methane Mitigation Systems • Vented Cistern • Methane or Gas Removal System (works for methane, radon, other gases)

  26. Potential Impacts to Water Wells

  27. Potential Impacts to Water Wells • Malfunctioning septic systems • Fuel spills • Chemical pesticides or fertilizers • Household hazardous wastes, paints and solvents storage and spills • Road salt runoff • Livestock manure, animal feces • Improperly abandoned historic mines & wells • Contamination & spills from nearby industry

  28. Livestock Pen, Well Head & Cistern

  29. Testing, Maintenance & Treatment • Have your well records on hand (DWR-SEO) • Maintain and Test your Well • Laboratory Testing • Colorado Dept. of Health & Environment (CDPHE) Lab • Private Water Testing Labs • Well Maintenance Contractors • Well Drilling & Pump Contractors • Licensed through the DWR-SEO • Optionally Certified by a NGWA • Consultants • Hydrogeologists • Certified Water Well Maintenance Contractors

  30. Resources • Laboratory Testing & Information • CDPHE & Private Labs • EPA - The Safe Drinking Water Hotline 800-426-4791. • Consultants & Experts • Colorado Ground Water Association - coloradogroundwater.org • Well Drilling Contractors • DWR-SEO (Permits, Licensed Water Well/Pump Contractor) • Colorado Water Well Contractors Assoc. -  cwwca.org • National Ground Water Association - wellowner.org • Colorado Oil and Gas Conservation Commission • Well Owner Associations • National Ground Water Association - wellowner.org • Water Systems Council - Well Owners Network - watersystemscouncil.org • American Ground Water Trust – agwt.org

  31. The Goal: To insure your water is enjoyed by everyone!

  32. THANK YOU • Sponsored By: • Las Animas County Cattlemen’s Association • Las Animas County Health Department • Pioneer Natural Resources USA, Inc. • Trinidad & Las Animas County Chamber of Commerce • Trinidad State Junior College • Vista GeoScience LLC This presentation is intended to provide general information regarding water wells. It is not intended to address any specific circumstances regarding individual water wells. For specific questions regarding your individual circumstances contact one of the agencies listed above or a qualified water well maintenance or repair contractor. The sponsors make no representation express or implied as to the accuracy or completeness of the information in this presentation, and are under no obligation to update or correct such information. The sponsors expressly disclaim any liability resulting from the use of this presentation or any errors therein or omissions there from.