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ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers). Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D. B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970 Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)

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me 2105 introduction to material science for engineers

ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers)

Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D.

B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970

Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)

Ph.D., Ind. Eng. Penn State University, 1987 (Foundry Engineering – CG Alloy Development)

syllabus and website
Syllabus and Website:
  • Review the Syllabus
    • Attendance is your job – come to class!
    • Final is Common Time at the Beginning of the Finals Period
    • Semi-Pop Quizzes and homework/Chapter Reviews (Ch 17 & 18) – (20% of your grade!) – note, additional homework (not to be collected) is suggested to prepare for quizzes and exams!
    • Don’t copy from others; don’t plagiarize – its just the right thing to do!!
  • Course Website: http://www.d.umn.edu/~rlindek1/ME2105/Cover_Page.htm
our text

Our Text:

Materials Science for Engineering: an Introduction

 By Callister & Rethwisch

8th Edition, Wiley, 2010.

materials science and engineering
Materials Science and Engineering
  • It all about the (raw) materials and how they are processed
  • That is why we call it materials ENGINEERING
  • Minor differencesin Raw materials or processing parameters can meanmajor changes in the performanceof the final material or product
why the class
Why the class?
  • As ME/IE we are involved in design of products or processes
  • When making up a design, what materials we use are critical (and driven by the function of the design)
  • When investigating processes, minor changes can have a major impact on the results
materials science and engineering1
Materials Science and Engineering
  • Materials Science
    • The discipline of investigating the relationships that exist between the structures and properties (or performance) of materials.
  • Materials Engineering
    • The discipline of designing or engineering the structure of a material to produce a predetermined set of properties based on established structure-property correlation.
  • Four Major Components of Material Science and Engineering:
    • Structure of Materials
    • Properties of Materials
    • Processing of Materials
    • Performance of Materials
material selection in design
Material Selection in Design

Properties are a link between the fundamental issues of materials science and the practical challenges of materials engineering. (FromG. E. Dieter, in ASM Handbook,Vol. 20: Materials Selection and Design, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1997, p. 245.)

and remember materials drive our society
And Remember: Materials “Drive” our Society!
  • Ages of “Man” and note, we survive based on the materials we control!
    • Stone Age – naturally occurring materials
      • Special rocks, skins, wood
    • Bronze Age
      • Casting and forging
    • Iron Age
      • High Temperature furnaces and strong materials
    • Steel Age
      • High Strength Alloys
    • Non-Ferrous and Polymer Age
      • Aluminum, Titanium and Nickel (superalloys) – aerospace
      • Silicon – Information
      • Plastics and Composites – food preservation, housing, aerospace and higher speeds
    • Exotic Materials Age?
      • Nano-Material and bio-Materials – they are coming and then …
and formula one the future of automotive is
And Formula One – the future of automotive is …

http://www.autofieldguide.com/articles/050701.html

cg structure but with great care
CG Structure – but with great care!

Poor “Too Little”

Good Structure 45KSI YS; 55KSI UTS

Poor “Too Much”

doing materials
Doing Materials!
  • Engineered Materials are a function of:
    • Raw Materials Elemental Control
    • Processing History
  • Our Role in Engineering Materials then is to understand the application and specify the appropriate material to do the job as a function of:
    • Strength: yield and ultimate
    • Ductility, flexibility
    • Weight/density
    • Working Environment
    • Cost: Lifecycle expenses, Environmental impact*

* Economic and Environmental Factors often are the most important when making the final decision!

introduction
Introduction
  • List the Major Types of MATERIALS That You Know:
    • METALS
    • CERAMICS/Glasses
    • POLYMERS
    • COMPOSITES
    • ADVANCED MATERIALS( Nano-materials, electronic materials)
introduction cont
Metals

Steel, Cast Iron, Aluminum, Copper, Titanium, many others

Ceramics

Glass, Concrete, Brick, Alumina, Zirconia, SiN, SiC

Polymers

Plastics, Wood, Cotton (rayon, nylon), “glue”

Composites

Glass Fiber-reinforced polymers, Carbon Fiber-reinforced polymers, Metal Matrix Composites, etc.

Introduction, cont.
thoughts about these fundamental materials
Thoughts about these “fundamental” Materials
  • Metals:
    • Strong, ductile
    • high thermal & electrical conductivity
    • opaque, reflective.
  • Ceramics: ionic bonding (refractory) – compounds of metallic & non-metallic elements (oxides, carbides, nitrides, sulfides)
    • Brittle, glassy, inelastic
    • non-conducting (insulators)
  • Polymers/plastics: Covalent bonding  sharing of e’s
    • Soft, ductile, low strength, low density
    • thermal & electrical insulators
    • Optically translucent or transparent.
slide23

Periodic table ceramic compounds are a combination of one or more metallic elements (in light color) with one or more nonmetallic elements (in dark color).

glasses atomic scale structure of a a ceramic crystalline and b a glass noncrystalline
Glasses: atomic-scale structure of (a) a ceramic (crystalline) and (b) a glass (noncrystalline)
optical properties of ceramic are controlled by grain structure
Optical Properties of Ceramic are controlled by “Grain Structure”

Grain Structure is a function of “Solidification” processing!

slide26
Polymers are typically inexpensive and are characterized by ease of formation and adequate structural properties
the materials selection process as a part of design
The Materials Selection Process – as a part of design

1.

EngineeredApplicationwillDetermine required Properties

Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,

magnetic, optical, deteriorative.

2.

Properties

Identify candidate Material(s)

Material: structure, composition.

3.

Material

Identify required Processing

Processing: changes structure and overall shape

ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping

forming, joining, annealing.

slide30

These so-called Ashby Charts are developed for comparing candidate materials considering many design factors

Materials property chart with a view of relative materials performance. Here plots of elastic modulus and density data (on logarithmic scales) for various materials indicate that members of the different categories of structural materials tend to group together. (After M. F. Ashby, Materials Selection in Engineering Design, Pergamon Press, Inc., Elmsford, NY, 1992.)

slide31
Properties depend on Structure (strength or hardness)

(d)

30mm

(c)

(b)

(a)

4mm

30mm

30mm

But:

6

00

5

00

4

00

Hardness (BHN)

3

00

2

00

100

0.01

0.1

1

10

100

1000

Cooling Rate (ºC/s)

And:

Processing can change structure! (see above structure vs Cooling Rate)

another example rolling of steel
Another Example: Rolling of Steel
  • At h1, L1
    • low UTS
    • low YS
    • high ductility
    • round grains
  • At h2, L2
    • high UTS
    • high YS
    • low ductility
    • elongated grains

Structure determines Properties but Processing determines Structure!

electrical properties of copper

6

Cu + 3.32 at%Ni

5

4

Cu + 2.16 at%Ni

deformed Cu + 1.12 at%Ni

Resistivity,r

3

(10-8 Ohm-m)

Cu + 1.12 at%Ni

2

1

“Pure” Cu

0

-200

-100

0

T (°C)

Electrical Properties (of Copper):
  • Electrical Resistivity of Copper is affected by:
  • Contaminate level
  • Degree of deformation
  • Operating temperature

from: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik5, 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1970.)

thermal properties

400

300

(W/m-K)

200

Thermal Conductivity

100

0

0

10

20

30

40

Composition (wt% Zinc)

100mm

THERMAL Properties

• Space Shuttle Tiles:

--Silica fiber insulation

offers low heat conduction.

• Thermal Conductivity

of Copper: --It decreases when

you add zinc!

from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)

Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA)

magnetic properties

Fe+3%Si

Fe

Magnetization

Magnetic Field

MAGNETIC Properties

• Magnetic Permeability

vs. Composition:

--Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a better recording medium!

• Magnetic Storage:

--Recording medium

is magnetized by

recording head.

Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and

A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of

Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,

Electronically reproduced

by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,

Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990

deteriorative properties

-8

10

“as-is”

“held at

160ºC for 1 hr

before testing”

crack speed (m/s)

-10

10

Alloy 7178 tested in

saturated aqueous NaCl

solution at 23ºC

increasing load

4mm

--material:

7150-T651 Al "alloy"

(Zn,Cu,Mg,Zr)

G.H. Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.

DETERIORATIVE Properties

• Heat treatment: slows

crack speed in salt water!

• Stress & Saltwater...

--causes cracks!

Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)

Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.

example of materials engineering work hip implant
Example of Materials Engineering Work – Hip Implant
  • With age or certain illnesses joints deteriorate. Particularly those with large loads (such as hip).
example hip implant
Example – Hip Implant
  • Requirements
    • mechanical strength (many cycles)
    • good lubricity
    • biocompatibility
solution hip implant
Solution – Hip Implant

Acetabular

Cup and Liner

  • Key Problems to overcome:
    • fixation agent to hold acetabular cup
    • cup lubrication material
    • femoral stem – fixing agent (“glue”)
    • must avoid any debris in cup
    • Must hold up in body chemistry
    • Must be strong yet flexible

Ball

Femoral

Stem

course goal is to make you aware of the importance of material selection by
Course Goal is to make you aware of the importance of Material Selection by:
  • Choosing the right material for the job
    • -- one that is the most economical and “Greenest” when life cycle usage is considered. As designers we must consider “Sustainability” in our designs and material choices
  • Understanding the relation between properties, structure, and processing.
  • Recognizing new design opportunities offered by materials selection.