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ME 2105 Introduction to Material Science (for Engineers). Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D. B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970 Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)
Dr. Richard R. Lindeke, Ph.D.
B Met. Eng. University of Minnesota, 1970
Master’s Studies, Met Eng. Colorado School of Mines, 1978-79 (Electro-Slag Welding of Heavy Section 2¼ Cr 1 Mo Steels)
Ph.D., Ind. Eng. Penn State University, 1987 (Foundry Engineering – CG Alloy Development)
Materials Science for Engineering: an Introduction
By Callister & Rethwisch
8th Edition, Wiley, 2010.
Properties are a link between the fundamental issues of materials science and the practical challenges of materials engineering. (FromG. E. Dieter, in ASM Handbook,Vol. 20: Materials Selection and Design, ASM International, Materials Park, OH, 1997, p. 245.)
Poor “Too Little”
Good Structure 45KSI YS; 55KSI UTS
Poor “Too Much”
* Economic and Environmental Factors often are the most important when making the final decision!
Steel, Cast Iron, Aluminum, Copper, Titanium, many others
Glass, Concrete, Brick, Alumina, Zirconia, SiN, SiC
Plastics, Wood, Cotton (rayon, nylon), “glue”
Glass Fiber-reinforced polymers, Carbon Fiber-reinforced polymers, Metal Matrix Composites, etc.Introduction, cont.
Periodic table ceramic compounds are a combination of one or more metallic elements (in light color) with one or more nonmetallic elements (in dark color).
Grain Structure is a function of “Solidification” processing!
Fiber Glass Composite:
EngineeredApplicationwillDetermine required Properties
Properties: mechanical, electrical, thermal,
magnetic, optical, deteriorative.
Identify candidate Material(s)
Material: structure, composition.
Identify required Processing
Processing: changes structure and overall shape
ex: casting, sintering, vapor deposition, doping
forming, joining, annealing.
These so-called Ashby Charts are developed for comparing candidate materials considering many design factors
Materials property chart with a view of relative materials performance. Here plots of elastic modulus and density data (on logarithmic scales) for various materials indicate that members of the different categories of structural materials tend to group together. (After M. F. Ashby, Materials Selection in Engineering Design, Pergamon Press, Inc., Elmsford, NY, 1992.)
Cooling Rate (ºC/s)
Processing can change structure! (see above structure vs Cooling Rate)
Structure determines Properties but Processing determines Structure!
Cu + 3.32 at%Ni
Cu + 2.16 at%Ni
deformed Cu + 1.12 at%Ni
Cu + 1.12 at%Ni
T (°C)Electrical Properties (of Copper):
from: J.O. Linde, Ann Physik5, 219 (1932); and C.A. Wert and R.M. Thomson, Physics of Solids, 2nd edition, McGraw-Hill Company, New York, 1970.)
Composition (wt% Zinc)
• Space Shuttle Tiles:
--Silica fiber insulation
offers low heat conduction.
• Thermal Conductivity
of Copper: --It decreases when
you add zinc!
from Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Nonferrous alloys and Pure Metals, Vol. 2, 9th ed., H. Baker, (Managing Editor), American Society for Metals, 1979, p. 315.)
Courtesy of Lockheed Aerospace Ceramics Systems, Sunnyvale, CA)
Magnetic FieldMAGNETIC Properties
• Magnetic Permeability
--Adding 3 atomic % Si makes Fe a better recording medium!
• Magnetic Storage:
is magnetized by
Adapted from C.R. Barrett, W.D. Nix, and
A.S. Tetelman, The Principles of
Engineering Materials, Fig. 1-7(a), p. 9,
by permission of Pearson Education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.
J.U. Lemke, MRS Bulletin, Vol. XV, No. 3, p. 31, 1990
160ºC for 1 hr
crack speed (m/s)
Alloy 7178 tested in
saturated aqueous NaCl
solution at 23ºC
7150-T651 Al "alloy"
G.H. Narayanan and A.G. Miller, Boeing Commercial Airplane Company.DETERIORATIVE Properties
• Heat treatment: slows
crack speed in salt water!
• Stress & Saltwater...
Adapted from Fig. 11.20(b), R.W. Hertzberg, "Deformation and Fracture Mechanics of Engineering Materials" (4th ed.), p. 505, John Wiley and Sons, 1996. (Original source: Markus O. Speidel, Brown Boveri Co.)
Marine Corrosion, Causes, and Prevention, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., 1975.
Cup and Liner