Immigration and Integration of Immigrants in Canada's Territories - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Immigration and Integration of Immigrants in Canada's Territories

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  1. Immigration and Integration of Immigrants in Canada's Territories by Robert Vineberg February 17, 2009

  2. Purpose Provide an overview of immigration to Canada’s three northern territories Review the history of immigration to the territories Examine the current situation Suggest future directions for the immigration policies of the territories 2

  3. A Little Bit of History • Post-aboriginal migration driven by resources • Furs • Metals • Diamonds • Oil and Gas • Impact of Immigration • Need to ensure distinct character and culture of North maintained 3

  4. The Hudson Bay Company • Chartered in 1670 • Grant of Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory • Administrative Responsibilities • Initial Migration • Canadiens • Selkirk Settlers • Rivalry with the Northwest Company 4

  5. The Great Purchase • Confederation • Canada’s western aspirations • Royal Charter to reviewed • Decline of the fur trade • HBC ownership more interested in land and land development • 3 way negotiations (Canada, UK and HBC) lead to purchase of Rupert’s Land and the N-W Territory in 1870 5


  6. Administration of the NWT • Capital and Lt. Governor in Winnipeg • “Postage Stamp” province of Manitoba carved out of NWT • Manitoba – 12,000 in 1871 • NWT – 29,000 in 1871 • NWMP established • Coming of the Railway • By 1901 – almost 500,000 on the Prairies 6

  7. Klondike Gold! • Discovered in1895 • Gold rush reaches peak in 1898 • Dawson City grows to est. 40,000 • NWMP set up border posts • Separate Yukon Territory created in 1898 • Gold rush ends • Population of Yukon drops to 8,500 • Territorial status remains 7

  8. Today 8

  9. The Air Age • Post-WW1 bush pilots • Exploration of the north for resources • Migration largely from the south • Some overseas migration starting in 70s and 80s with growth of territorial administrations in the North • Most working in government and related fields (education & health care) 9

  10. Immigration & the Territories Today Large aboriginal population Relatively small immigrant and Visible Minority population 10

  11. Immigration & the Territories Today Most immigration has gone to the three capital cities 11

  12. Immigration & the Territories Today Source Facts and Figures 2007 – Citizenship and Immigration Canada 12

  13. Immigration & the Territories Today Canada's Territories - Stock of Temporary Workers (as of December 1) Year Yukon NWT Nunavut Total 2003 77 250 33 360 2004 98 271 33 402 2005 96 285 44 425 2006 108 274 47 429 2007 158 308 55 521 Source: Facts and Figures 2007 – Citizenship and Immigration Canada 13

  14. Immigration & the Territories Today • Primary immigration figures are not sufficient to account for the numbers of immigrants in the northern population • The immigrant population of 6,275 in 2006, would suggest perhaps 300 immigrants per year over the last 20 years • Relatively large numbers of immigrants, originally destined to cities in the southern parts of Canada, have been drawn to the north by the same factors that draw Canadians 14

  15. Federal Territorial Relations • All 3 territories work closely with CIC • But all are at different stages of engagement • To date, only Yukon has a framework agreement and a TNP agreement • First in 2001 • Current agreements signed in May 2008 • GNWT is showing interest in a TNP agreement 15

  16. CIC Presence • One person office in Whitehorse • Supported by CIC Prince George • One person office in Yellowknife • Supported by CIC Edmonton • Nunavut serviced by CIC Winnipeg • Assisted by officer in Yellowknife 16

  17. Settlement Services • In Yukon, SPO is the Association Franco-Yukonaise • 2008-09: • ISAP: $93,836 • LINC: $85,820 • HOST: $34,178 • In NWT the major SPO is Aurora College • 2008-09: • Comprehensive contract for $156,122 • Also ISAP contract for francophone settlement with the Féderation Franco-TéNoise for $60,000 • No settlement services to date in Nunavut 17

  18. Enhanced Language Training • Recently offered in both Yukon and NWT • In Yukon, SPO is Yukon College • 2008-09 contract for $111,274 and Government of Yukon contributing an additional $26,190 • In NWT, SPO is Aurora College • Contract to June 2009 for $57,621 18

  19. Territorial Organization Yukon – Department of Education NWT – Department of Education Culture and Employment Nunavut – Department of Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs All three members of CIC’s FPT Planning Table 19

  20. Territorial Nominees Program • Only Yukon has a Nominees Program • Hit high gear in 2008 • Critical Impact Worker Category created in November 2007 • Inception to December 2008: • 299 principal applicants • 201 of them in the Critical Impact category • Yukon likely to surpass NWT as major Northern Destination • Yukon also interested in TFW annex 20

  21. NGOs Francophone Associations in Yukon and NWT as noted earlier Newcomers Ethno-Cultural Centre in Yellowknife Churches Islamic Centre of Yellowknife Chambers of Commerce supportive of immigration but no specific programs in place 21

  22. Policy Implications - 1 • NWT and Nunavut only provinces or territories without means to select own immigrants • Costs of the program is a concern • But cost of not doing so must be considered • E.g.: diamond cutters and polishers • Propose contracting with another jurisdiction for program delivery 22

  23. Policy Implications - 2 • Promotion • Yukon making good use of web site to promote immigration and deliver TNP • NWT and Nunavut need to do the same • Portal funding available – agreements in place with Yukon and NWT • All three territories should recruit immigrants from southern Canada • Québec model 23

  24. Policy Implications - 3 • Settlement • NWT need to press CIC to ensure all available settlement funding is spent and spent effectively • Capacity in more NGOs needs to be developed • Recommend use of Small Centres Toolbox • Immigration needs to be regarded as a “whole of government” issue: • Especially: housing, schooling, health 24

  25. Policy Implications - 4 • Balancing Immigration and needs of the Aboriginal Population • Indigenous population must be provided all the advantages offered to immigrants • Benefits of immigration must be clear to all citizens of the territories • Cooperation • All three levels of government need to work together and all three territories can benefit by working together on Immigration issues 25

  26. Thank you! 26

  27. Credits • Text Notes • Please see my paper, “Immigration and Integration of Immigrants in Canada’s Territories” • Illustrations • Polar Bear Illustrations from “First People” website: http://www.firstpeople.us/FP-Html-Links/link2us.html • Maps • Territorial Evolution of Canada Maps from the Atlas of Canada (Natural Resources Canada) from the Library and Archives Canada website: http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/confederation/023001-2101-e.html • Map of the Territories from the Natural Resources Canada Website: http://atlas.nrcan.gc.ca/site/english/maps/reference/provincesterritories/northern_territories 27