mesopotamia egypt indus and china civilzations
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Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus and China Civilzations. Civilization. What is Civilization Advanced Cities Specialized Workers Food surplus provided the opportunity for specialization As cities grew the need for specialized workers grew. Traders, priests, government officials

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  • What is Civilization
    • Advanced Cities
    • Specialized Workers
      • Food surplus provided the opportunity for specialization
      • As cities grew the need for specialized workers grew.
      • Traders, priests, government officials
    • Complex Institutions (well organized central governments
      • Government, religions, and economy
      • Soaring population made government necessary
      • Education systmen
how did civilization start
How did Civilization Start
  • Villages grew into cities
    • Communities were based on agriculture
    • Domesticated animals became more common
    • Population increased
geography the fertile crescent
Geography- The Fertile Crescent
  • Land between the Rivers
    • Tigris
    • Euphrates
  • Types of Floods
    • Unpredictable
    • Cooperation
      • dams & canals
geography of egypt
Geography of Egypt

Nile River- lifeline of Egypt

  • Little rainfall
  • Cataract- waterfall
  • Yearly floods
    • Controlled
    • Deposit silt
  • Geography (India)
    • Indus and Ganges Rivers
    • Hindus Kush and Himalaya separate India from Asia
  • Civilization:
    • Little is know
    • Traded with Africa
    • Planned Cities (sewage system)
    • Strong Central government
    • Religion: Polytheism
  • Writing unknown
geography of china
Geography of China
  • Long distances and physical barriers
      • Barriers
        • West- mountains- Himalayas and Tien Shan
        • North- Gobi Desert
        • South East- dense forests
        • Pacific Ocean
      • Believed they were the center of the universe
    • Huang He River
      • Loess- rich yellow soil
      • flooding
  • Hebrews settled between the Mediterranean Sea
  • and the Jordan River Valley (part of Fertile
  • Crescent in Southwest Asia).
The Phoenicians established a trade empire, and colonies, throughout the Mediterranean.

They were great sailors who traded several goods including glass and lumber.

Their most important product was Tyrian purple, a dye made from boiling the Murex snail.

This purple dye was very difficult and expensive to produce. It was very valuable to the rich.

Murex snail

kush a k a nubia
. Kush (a.k.a. Nubia)
  • Geography- East Africa
  • Southern(Upper Nile)
  • Separated from Egypt by the cataracts
. Culture
  • Earliest Sub-Saharan civilization

2. Influenced by Egyptians through trade and conflict

sumer 3500 bc
Sumer (3500 BC)
  • City-states- city and surrounding land and villages
  • Ziggurat- temple
  • Polytheistic


  • Developed to keep track of accounts (trade)
  • Cuneiform- wedge shaped markings on clay tablets
  • Scribes
  • Gilgamesh epic- may be oldest story in the world

Fell to foreign invaders (2000s BC)

history of the hebrews
History of the Hebrews
  • Abraham
  • Abraham is seen as the Patriarch, or father, of

Judaism as well as Christianity and Islam.

  • He enters into a covenant (agreement) with God:
  • In exchange for sole recognition of Yahweh as supreme universal authority, Abraham will be the father of a great nation.
  • Sargon I
    • first empire builder
    • United city-states of Mesopotamia into one empire
babylonian empire
Babylonian Empire
  • Hammurabi
    • United Sumer and


    • Strong government
    • Babylon became a center of trade
hammurabi s law code
Hammurabi’s Law Code
  • Eye for an eye
  • Created a law code for entire region
  • Civil law- rights, businesses, and taxes
  • Criminal law- murder

Hittites raided Babylon and empire fell apart

(1600-1200 B.C.)

They were the first people to learn to smelt (separate metal from ore) iron.

They used iron weapons and two person chariots which gave them a military advantage.

They were eventually weakened and defeated by sea raiders.

The Assyrian military was one of the strongest in the ancient world.

They used fierce iron weapons and psychological warfare.

The Assyrians would often attempt to get an area to surrender before attack.

If people refused and were defeated they were treated harshly.

King Ashurnasirpal once stated

“3,000 of their combat troops I felled with weapons . . . Many I took alive; from some of these I cut off their hands to the wrists, from others I cut off their noses, ears and fingers; I put out the eyes of many of the soldiers. . . . I burned their young men and women to death.”



Considered the greatest Assyrian King.

He collected the writings of Mesopotamia and est. the great library of Nineveh

The Phoenicians spread their alphabet throughout the Mediterranean

Their alphabet consisted of 22 letters, it did not have vowels.

Unlike many early alphabets which were made of pictograms, the Phoenician alphabet was phonic (based on sound). These sounds could be assembled to make words.

The Greeks eventually adopted this alphabet, which influenced the Latin Alphabet which we use today.

  • Wealthy kingdom famous for gold deposits
  • Most civilizations used a barter system of exchanging goods
  • Lydians were the first to develop a coin money system
  • The escape of the Israelites from their captivity in Egypt.
  • Moses was the leader of the Hebrew Exodus. The story goes that the Hebrew God had to curse Egypt with 10 plagues in order for the Pharaoh (Ramses II) to free the Israelites.
  • 10 Plagues
  • The Nile turned to blood
  • Frogs
  • Fleas and Lice
  • Flies
  • Epidemic disease which exterminated the Egyptian livestock.
  • Boils
  • Storm (Hail)
  • Locusts
  • Darkness
  • Death of the first born son
  • According to the Torah, the Israelites disobeyed God and wandered the desert for 40 years before reaching the holy land.
King Solomon (970-930 BCE)

United the 12 tribes of Israel into the Kingdom of Israel

During this time Jerusalem

became the capital of the

Kingdom of Israel

Under the leadership of Solomon,

Israel reached the height of its power.

He built a great temple in Jerusalem which

became the focal point of the Jewish Religion.

The remains of this temple, now known as the

Western Wall or Wailing Wall are still a focal

point of the Jewish faith.

jewish diaspora
Jewish Diaspora
  • The Diaspora is the scattering of the Jewish people.
  • People scattered when the New Babylonians defeat the Israelites
  • Ended when the Persians freed the Jews and the Jews returned to Jerusalem and rebuilt the temple.
beliefs traditions and customs of judaism
Beliefs, traditions, and customs of Judaism
  • Belief in one God- monotheism
  • Torah
    • contains written records and beliefs of Hebrews
    • First 5 books of the Bible
  • Ten Commandments, which state

moral and religious conduct

  • Yahweh: The Jewish name for God