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Noxious Weeds and Management Strategies . Presented By : Dale Whaley Washington State University Extension. Are all weeds bad all the time?. A weed in one place could be a benefit in another Lots of weedy plants are used by birds, animals, insects and people

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noxious weeds and management strategies

Noxious Weeds and Management Strategies

  • Presented By:
  • Dale Whaley

Washington State University Extension

are all weeds bad all the time
Are all weeds bad all the time?
  • A weed in one place could be a benefit in another
  • Lots of weedy plants are used by birds, animals, insects and people
  • It depends on the threat to resources or ecosystems

A honey bee visits bull thistle flowers

F. & K. Starr, Starr Environmental, Bugwood.org

what is an invasive weed
What is an invasive weed?
  • Introduced / non-native
  • Out-compete native plants
  • Change local ecology
  • Reproduce and spread rapidly

D. Whaley, WSU Extension

Diffuse knapweed Infestation

invasive plants harm native habitats and species
Invasive plants harm native habitats and species.

Invasive plants like English Ivy transform forests and natural areas

J.M. Swearingen, USDI National Park Service, Bugwood.org

increased risk of fire
Increased Risk of Fire

D. Whaley, WSU Extension

D. Powell, USDA Forest Service, Bugwood.org

invasive plants impact wildlife
Invasive plants impact wildlife.

Humming bird stuck to Burdock burs eventually dying on the spot.

D. Whaley, WSU Extension

washington s noxious weed law involves both public and private landowners
Washington’s noxious weed law involves both public and private landowners.

King County NWCP

King County NWCP

what is a noxious weed
What is a noxious weed?
  • Non-native plant that impacts agriculture, wildlife, human health, land values or natural resources
  • Defined and regulated by state law (RCW 17.10)

Visit the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board website

different lists regulate nurseries and landowners
Different lists regulate nurseries and landowners.
  • Noxious Weed List (WAC 16-750)
    • Weeds that are beginning to invade but not yet widespread
    • Regulated by county noxious weed boards
    • Property owner required to prevent plants from seeding
  • State Quarantine List (WAC 16-752)
    • To prevent spread of new introductions (does not include already naturalized plants)
    • Regulated by WSDA Nursery Inspection Program
    • Businesses are prohibited from selling plants or seeds
noxious weeds are ranked by how widespread they are
Noxious weeds are ranked by how widespread they are.
  • Class A Weeds – new invaders, control required statewide, still a chance to eradicate
  • Class B and C Regulated Weeds – control required only in particular counties or regions, still have a chance to stop them from getting established
  • Non-Regulated Class B and C Noxious Weeds and Weeds of Concern – control not required but definitely a good idea whenever possible
here are a few examples of weed classes
Here are a few examples of weed classes.

Class C Non-Regulated: Old man’s beard

Class B Regulated: Scotch broom

Class A: Common Crupina

J. Andreas, WSU Extension

USDA APHIS PPQ Archive, Bugwood.org

King County

ecology based weed management is a long term approach to weed management

Restore

Weed Population Growth

Control

Prevent

Ecology-based weed management is a long-term approach to weed management

If less than 15% cover is desirable plants, then need to restore as well as control weeds

Time

get to know the type of weed in order to control it better
Get to know the type of weed in order to control it better.
  • Annual
  • Biennial
  • Perennial
  • Woody plant
  • Vine

L.L. Berry, Bugwood.org

S. Dewey, Utah State Univ., Bugwood.org

Perennial: Spotted Knapweed

Annual: Common Groundsel

Utah State Univ. Archive, Bugwood.org

King County NWCP

Biennial: Tansy Ragwort

Shrub: Scotch Broom

getting to know your roots is especially important
Getting to know your roots is especially important.

K.W. Zobrist WSU Extension

K.W. Zobrist WSU Extension

K.W. Zobrist WSU Extension

practice integrated pest management
Practice integrated pest management.
  • Prevention
  • Land management
  • Manual controls
  • Mechanical controls
  • Chemical controls
  • Biological controls
prevention is the cheapest weed control method
Prevention is the cheapest weed control method.

D. Whaley, WSU Extension

King County NWCP

manual control is targeted and effective but also lots of work
Manual control is targeted and effective, but also lots of work.

S. Shaw, King County NWCP

C. Gray, GA EPPC, Bugwood.org

Pulling and bagging garlic mustard

Digging giant hogweed

S. Shaw, King County NWCP

Pulling gorse with a weed wrench

make sure you have a disposal plan for the weeds you dig up
Make sure you have a disposal plan for the weeds you dig up.

King County NWCP

King County NWCP

Make sure the weeds are dead when you leave them

Noxious weeds that are regulated should go in the garbage.

Commercial yard waste composting is good for widespread weeds

slide21

Mechanical control reduces the weed’s vigor without disturbing the soil.

Be careful not to move weed seeds on equipment.

sheet mulching is another way to starve the weeds without disturbing the soil
Sheet mulching is another way to starve the weeds without disturbing the soil.
  • Bark or woodchips over cardboard or layered newspaper - best for soil building
  • Geotextile fabric - good for weed control
  • Black plastic - cheapest, not good for soil

T. Neuffer, WSU Extension

King County NWCP

biological weed control
Biological Weed Control

The intentional use of one living organism to control/suppress another organism, such as WEEDS

Nematodes

Caesar, USDA ARS; bugwood.org

Insects

Pathogens

Mammals

Piper, WSU; bugwood.org

WSU Extension

Healing Hooves

slide25

Solution – “Classical Biocontrol”

40-50 Degree Latitude Belt

slide27

Solution – “Classical Biocontrol”

40-50 Degree Latitude Belt

slide28

Ideal Biocontrol Agent Characteristics

  • Host-specific
    • only attacks target weed
  • High searching capacity
    • capable of dispersing and finding host
  • High reproductive potential
    • produces many offspring
  • Long-lived adults
    • increase searching, egg distribution, compensates for asynchronies in phenology
  • Multi-voltinism
    • more than one generation a year
advantages
Advantages
  • Safe – USDA APHIS approves biological control agents before introduction into U.S.
  • Ecologically desirable – herbicide alternative
  • Insects are mobile
  • Long-term solution
  • Cost effective

Leafy Spurge Biocontrol

limitations
Limitations

Predatory mite

Predatory insect

  • Long time to make impact
  • Subject to predators
  • May not establish at some sites
  • Very slow approval of new agents
  • No eradication
when to use biocontrol
When To Use Biocontrol?
  • Established weed infestations
  • Remote, inaccessible, less disturbed areas
  • Areas not controlled by other means
  • Environmentally sensitive sites such as near water

WSU Extension

Kittitas CNWCB

when not to use biocontrol
When NOT To Use Biocontrol?
  • Small or new infestations
  • Highly disturbed areas
  • Roads or traveled paths
  • Areas unfavorable for insect
  • On weeds with no approved agents

Mazerolle, Air

Mazerolle, Air

weeds with biocontrol agents
Weeds with Biocontrol Agents
  • Scotch broom
  • tansy ragwort
  • meadow, diffuse, & spotted knapweed
  • Canada & bull thistle
  • purple loosestrife
  • St. Johnswort
  • yellow starthistle
  • puncturevine
  • rush skeletonweed
  • bindweed
  • Russian knapweed
  • Dalmatian & yellow toadflax
  • leafy spurge
contact central washington state s biocontrol program for assistance and information
Contact central Washington State’s biocontrol program for assistance and information.
  • Site assessments to determine if biocontrol is an option
  • Contact:
    • Dale Whaley, WSU Extension509-745-8531 officedwhaley@wsu.edu
    • Jennifer Andreas, WSU Extension

253-445-4657 office

jandreas@wsu.edu

chemical control can be highly effective but requires special care and knowledge
Chemical control can be highly effective but requires special care and knowledge.
  • Know your site
  • Know your weed
  • Know your product
  • Follow label instructions
  • Always be cautious and selective in your application

King County NWCP

there are a few special considerations when using herbicides in forestry
There are a few special considerations when using herbicides in forestry.

Read the Forestry section in the PNW Weed Management Handbook: http://uspest.org/pnw/weeds

here are a few useful websites for herbicide information
Here are a few useful websites for herbicide information.
  • WSDA Pesticide Licensing and Education
    • http://agr.wa.gov/PestFert/LicensingEd/default.htm
  • PNW Weed Management Handbook
    • http://pnwpest.org/pnw/weeds (see especially the chapters on Control of Problem Weeds)
  • Crop Data Management Systems, Inc. – labels and

MSDS for most herbicides

    • http://www.cdms.net/manuf/manuf.asp
a complete integrated vegetation management approach
A Complete Integrated Vegetation Management Approach
  • Small Weed Infestations
    • Preventative measures such as; weed free mulches or utilizing certified weed-free seed
    • Control or Eradication of the population
      • Hand-pulling (physical control)
      • Mowing (mechanical control)
      • Spot spray (chemical control)
    • Once completed; utilize preventative measures in order to minimize future weed invasions
a complete integrated vegetation management approach cont
A Complete Integrated Vegetation Management Approach cont…
  • Large Established Weed Infestations
    • Large scale mowing or tillage operations to stop seed production (mechanical control)
      • not recommended for perennial type weeds
    • Herbicide applications to the weed perimeter (chemical control)
    • Incorporation of weed eating insects or goats/sheep (biological control)
    • Once completed; utilize preventative measures in order to minimize future weed invasions
slide40

Helping You Put Knowledge to Work!

Dale Whaley

Regional Extension Specialist

203 S. Rainier St., PO Box 550

Waterville, WA 98858-0550

509-745-8531

dwhaley@wsu.edu www.ncw.wsu.edu