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Surface Marine DataInternational Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set (ICOADS) Steven Worley, NCAR Scott Woodruff, NOAA/ERSL Eric Freeman, NOAA/NCDC Joey Comeaux, NCAR
Topics ICOADS Release 2.5 Russian Contributions Data analysis and QC Opportunity for Collaboration Development of Bias-free Global Marine Data NOAA-Roshydromet Bilateral Program, NCDC, 30 Nov. – 1 Dec. 2011
ICOADS Release 2.5 Woodruff, S.D., S.J. Worley, S.J. Lubker, Z. Ji, J.E. Freeman, D.I. Berry, P. Brohan, E.C. Kent, R.W. Reynolds, S.R. Smith, and C. Wilkinson, 2011: ICOADS Release 2.5: Extensions and Enhancements to Sfc Marine Met. Archive. Int. J. Climatol., 31, 951-967. • Data Exchange: • NCAR prepared a TB drive with ICOADS archive • All observations and monthly summaries • All documentation and software • Complete in 2009 • Period 1662-2007 • Many new data sources added • Near-real-time, based on GTS • 2008 – October 2011 • Project web portal: http://icoads.noaa.gov/ NOAA-Roshydromet Bilateral Program, NCDC, 30 Nov. – 1 Dec. 2011
Recent marine platform mixture • Voluntary Observing Ships (VOS) • Drifting and moored buoys, and other marine platform types • Plus VOS metadata (with help from UK NOCS) WMO Pub. 47 VOS metadata 1966-2007
Major Russian Contribution to ICOADS • MORMET Archive • 25 million records, delivered 1989-1991 • Period, 1888-1990 • Russian R/V Digitization Project • Alex, Svetlana, Vera @ RIHMI • Period, 1936 – 2000 (met. and actinometric data) • 2 million records
Data Analysis and QCWorld Ocean Database 2009 Air Temperature Data work takes time and is constantly challenging! • Unrealistic distribution of Air Temperature • Anticipating a correction from NODC Realistic distribution of AT with latitude from WOD Error in one component of WOD
Data Analysis and QC German Maury Collection: 1845-67; 544K (digitized, under QC and translation)
Data Analysis and QC • MORMET • Ship Location Errors • Unrealistic Pattern, 1964
Data Analysis and QC - Impact From: Kennedy, J.J., N.A. Rayner, R.O. Smith, D.E. Parker, and M. Saunby (2011), Reassessing biases and other uncertainties in sea surface temperature observations measured in situ since 1850: 2. Biases and homogenization, J. Geophys. Res., 116, D14104 (doi:10.1029/2010JD015220) [http://www.agu.org/pubs/crossref/2011/2010JD015220.shtml]. “A manual scan of the data was performed after gridding the observations at monthly 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude resolution. Some observations from deck 732 between 1958 and 1974 were identified as being incorrectly located. A number of these areas were identified …... Seventeen 5-degree areas or blocks of 5-degree areas were obviously artificially warm or cold relative to neighboring areas and relative to other observations within the areas. Data from deck 732 were not used from the areas specified in Table 1 at the times specified in Table 2.”
Opportunity for Collaboration • NCAR Visiting Scientist Program • Host a Russian Scientist or Data Technician at NCAR • Purpose: Analyze and Improve Quality of MORMET • Results: • New high quality MORMET for ICOADS • New version of MORMET for RIHMI • NCAR Provides • Living expenses, 2-3 Months • Office and Computing Support • Work within Data Support Sectionat NCAR • Need written work plan and approval fromNCARmanagement NOAA-Roshydromet Bilateral Program, NCDC, 30 Nov. – 1 Dec. 2011
Development of Bias-free Global Marine Data ICOADS Release 2.6.0, Date: October 2012 • Datapreparationcutoff approx. April 2012 • ICOADS IMMA data format improvements • Including UID on each record • New attachments: • Physical oceanography – near-surface T&S • Value-added, bias adjustments • Platform tracking • Historical data, e.g. Beaufort wind force/Wx codes • Reanalysis feedbacks
Development of Bias-free Global Marine Data • New Project • Partners: NCAR, NOAA (ESRL, NCDC), Florida State University • ICOADS Value-Added Database (IVAD) • http://icoads.noaa.gov/ivad/ • Project aim: to trace value-added improvements back to individual ICOADS observations • How: • Establish a DBMS to support development of value-added records and facilitate user access • Implement modifications to the International Maritime Meteorological Archive (IMMA) data format • Scientifically demonstrate the impact of value-added records on air-sea flux estimates
Development of Bias-free Global Marine Data Ship size and impact on wind measurements
Development of Bias-free Global Marine Data • IVAD Process • International partners/contributors assess and determine bias adjustments • Adjustments are submitted to the IVAD team • Linkage is through the UID • Adjustment added to the records in the DBMS • User Access • Through interface get original and adjusted values • Version controlled IMMA data file are systematically output
Conclusions • ICOADS remains the global marine surface reference dataset • Russian partners have the newest version • Russian partners have contributed important observations • There is an opportunity to do U.S./Russia collaborative data quality work at NCAR • Through the IVAD project ICOADS is advancing toward a bias-free global marine dataset
Evolution of the Marine Climate Data System By platform mixture TOTAL By variable
Other Russian contribution to ICOADS Russian S.O. Makarov Collection 1804-1891; 3.5K reports; 27 ships Russian AARI North Pole (NP) Stations Reports through the World Ocean Data Base 2009 from NODC, precise quantities not known.