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14,15,16. “civilized” world. Materially – high standard of living, ocean liners, cars, electricity Secular outlook on life Low death rate Low infant mortality rate European family pattern – smaller families Growth of urban centers and urban life. Freedom of movement.

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civilized world
“civilized” world
  • Materially – high standard of living, ocean liners, cars, electricity
  • Secular outlook on life
  • Low death rate
  • Low infant mortality rate
  • European family pattern – smaller families
  • Growth of urban centers and urban life
freedom of movement
Freedom of movement
  • Immigration into various countries outside of Europe
  • Migration within Europe
  • Liberalism?
new industrial revolution
New Industrial Revolution
  • Use of steam power
  • Growth of metallurgical industries
  • Advent of the railroad
  • Electricity
  • Internal combustion engine
  • Chemistry – creation of synthetic fibers
  • Germany, Britain and France – major industrial powers
free trade
Free Trade
  • Advent of free trade
  • Buying more imports than what you export
  • British paid for imports with invisible exports – shipping and insurance
  • Export of European capital – investment of profits into other parts of the world instead of back to workers
  • Gold Standard – how did it affect debtor nations?
  • Limited liability corporation
french third republic
French Third Republic
  • Established after loss in Franco Prussian War
  • Conservatives vs Republicans
  • Dreyfus Affair – bring down republic
  • Domestication of republicanism
british
British
  • Advance toward an egalitarian political democracy very slow
  • Reform bill of 1832 – granted the right to vote to about 1/8th of people
  • We will see Britain granting the right to vote to more and more people
  • We will also see the rise of British Labor and Labor party during this time period
  • Disraeli – Conservative
  • Gladstone – Liberals – abandoned laissez faire and active state intervention
bismarck
Bismarck
  • Kulturkampf – Battle against Catholics –uses liberals to wage “war”
  • Abandons liberals – drops free trade and uses Catholics
  • Repress socialism with active socialist legislation
  • Realpolitik?
1871 1914
1871-1914
  • Rise and importance of labor unions
  • Come about due to the extension of suffrage to lower classes
  • British were most advanced in trade unionism
  • They brought into being and led the Labor Party – they will be less socialistic than labor parties on the continent
first international
First International
  • Association with the crazy and violent Paris Commune
  • Many will not want to be associated with this
revisionist and revolutionary socialism
Revisionist and Revolutionary Socialism
  • Marxism will turn into parliamentary socialism
  • Belief that workers or unions could work with the state to improve working conditions/wages
  • Revisionist socialists – Marx might be wrong – class struggle might not be necessary
  • Capitalism can be transformed
arts intellectual currents
Arts / intellectual currents
  • Charles Darwin – Origin of the species
  • Social darwinism
  • Changing views of Nature
  • Sigmund Freud – The Interpretation of dreams –
  • Impact on idea of rational individual
  • Einstein’s Theory of Relativity – matter was transmutable
  • Time, space and motion were not absolute in character, but relative
nietzsche
Nietzsche
  • Held a low opinion of modern democratic societies
  • Developed concept of superman – a new kind of noble being who would create new ethical values
  • Rejected qualities of humility, patience, hopefulness, hope and love
  • Encouraged qualities of danger, courage, intellectual excellence
  • Critique of reason and rationality
waning of classical liberalism
Waning of classical liberalism
  • Liberalism of John Locke, John Stuart Mill, - principle idea in liberty of the individual
  • Contributed to growth of women’s rights
  • Free trade
  • Parliamentary democracy
  • Eventually….universal male suffrage
  • What happened???
new liberalism
New Liberalism
  • Economic problems associated with capitalism leads to adoption of economic nationalism – tariffs, decline of free trade
  • Growth of welfare state – active state intervention
1871 1914 imperialism
1871-1914 - Imperialism
  • Imperialism –
  • Causes –
  • Differences from earlier colonialism
  • Highest stage of capitalism?
  • Social Darwinism
imperialism
Imperialism
  • Sick Man of Europe – Ottoman empire falling apart and the “scramble” to get the scraps
  • Attempts at reform – Abdul Hamid – and backlash
  • Russian invasion – Berlin Congress – mediate balance of power
  • Egypt and the Suez Canal and British intervention and Egypt as protectorate
partitioning of africa
Partitioning of Africa
  • Livingstone and Stanley and the Congo
  • Stanley and King Leopold and Congo
  • Berlin Congress of 1885 – rules of conquest
  • Friction between major powers – Fashoda Crisis between England and France
  • Boer War in South Africa
india
India
  • British rule goes from India Company to direct rule
china
China
  • Open Door Policy
  • Extraterritorial rights
  • Spheres of influence
  • Boxer Rebellion
japan
Japan
  • Meiji restoration kicks out imperialists
  • Japan becomes an imperialist nation itself
  • Russo Japanese war – win!