What is propaganda? • Propaganda is advertising (print or media) that is used to persuade a group by appealing to emotion. • Propaganda is created by advocates or opponents of a cause. Ex. Wartime propaganda • It twists the facts to serve the purpose of the ideology. • It is created by agencies and organizations rather than individuals. • It is directed to groups. • Propagandists typically are more interested in being persuasive than in doing the right thing or being exactly truthful (propaganda often exaggerates)
Most common forms of propaganda • Transfer • Cause and Effect • Emotional Words • Bandwagon • Repetition • Logical Fallacies • Name Calling • Testimonial • Appeal to Fear/Prejudice
Transfer • projecting positive or negative qualities of a person, entity, object, or value onto another in order to make the second more acceptable or to discredit it.
Cause and Effect This technique suggests that because B follows A, A must cause B. Remember, just because two events or two sets of data are related does not necessarily mean that one caused the other to happen.
Bandwagon • Reinforces people’s natural desire to be on the winning side (everyone is doing it!)
Repetition • Repeated use of a word, image, or slogan
Logical Fallacy • an argument that soundslogical, but, in reality, the premises given for the conclusion do not provide proper support for the argument.
Name Calling This techniques consists of attaching a negative label to a person or a thing. People engage in this type of behavior when they are trying to avoid supporting their own opinion with facts. Rather than explain what they believe in, they prefer to try to tear their opponent down.
Testimonial • Use of authority ora celebrityto support a position
Appeal to Fear Appeals to fear seek to build support by instilling anxieties and panic in the general population
Appeal to Prejudice Using loaded or controversial terms to attach value or moral goodness to believing a specific intention
Propaganda used in Animal Farm • Old Major’s original speech (3-8) • Mystery of the milk (16, 22-23) • Apples for the pigs (23) • Military directions given (28-29) • Debate over the windmill (32-33) • Squealer talking to the animals about Napoleon taking over the farm (36-37) • Squealer explaining the idea of the windmill being Napoleon’s idea (38)
Propaganda used in Animal Farm • The sheep repeating “Four legs good, two legs bad” over and over (2nd half of novel) • Animal Farm trading with humans (42) • Pigs moving into the farmhouse (44) • Blaming Snowball for the ills of the farm (46, 51-53, 59) • Ending “Beasts of England” (54) • Napoleon conferring a medal upon himself (68)
Propaganda Posters Activity • Get into a group of 2-3 (no more than 3!) • Select a propaganda technique from your notes. • Create a propaganda poster that you might see displayed in Animal Farm. Poster must make specific reference to the novel so far. Be sure to include color! • Your poster can be from the point of view of the pigs, humans, or the other animals. Up to you. Get creative!! • On the back of your poster, write a paragraph explaining: • What technique or techniques you are using, what your poster is referring to, and how your intended audience is supposed to respond to your poster.