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EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN. Kazuyuki KUBO Public Works Research Institute, Japan. Masaru TERADA Public Works Research Institute, Japan. Kazuhiro WATANABE Public Works Research Institute, Japan. EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN. Contents.

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Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

Kazuyuki KUBOPublic Works Research Institute, Japan

Masaru TERADAPublic Works Research Institute, Japan

Kazuhiro WATANABEPublic Works Research Institute, Japan


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

Contents

1 INTRODUCTION

2 OBJECTIVE

3 SKID RESISTANCE

(1)Background(DF Tester)

(2)Relationship with braking force coefficient determined

using Friction Measurement Vehicle

(3)Investigation of the limits of using rubber pieces

(4)Investigation of the amount of water be sprayed

4 WATER PERMEABILITY

(1)Background

(2)Investigation on the inside diameter of the valve

(3)Investigation on the watertightness of water sealers

5 CONCLUSION


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

1.INTRODUCTION

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

1 Introduction

The design guides for pavement were revised in 2001 in Japan

Specification-based Standards

Performance-based Standards

  • The road administratorsrequire performance for road surface through identifying the functions and needs of the surface of the road.

  • The constructors can select and use materials that meet the required performances.

  • The road administratorsspecify the materials and structures of pavement.

  • The constructors produced and applied asphalt mixes that satisfied the regulations in the manual.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

1.INTRODUCTION

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

Background of this revise …

  • The functions required for pavement have become increasingly diverse as society has developed.

  • The new rules have the freedom of designing pavement and selecting materials, respond to diverse needs, and encourage further technological innovation.

Therefore, various performance evaluation methods are being investigated in Japan.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

2.OBJECTIVE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

2 Objective

In this presentation, skid resistance and water permeability will be picked up and investigated toward appropriate evaluation.

Skid resistance : great relation to safety for driving a vehicle

To investigate

  • the relationship with braking force coefficient determined Friction Measurement Vehicle and rolling skid number (RSN) determined by Dynamic Friction Tester (DF Tester)

  • the limits of using rubber pieces of DF Tester

  • the amount of water to be sprayed of DF Tester

Water permeability : road noise reduction, traffic safety by preventing

water from splashing during rainfall

To investigate

  • the influence of the inside diameter of the valve in testers.

  • the watertightness of water sealers between road surface and testers


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

3.SKID RESISTNACE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

3 Skid resistance (1) Background (DF Tester)

In Japan, Skid resistance is measured using…

  • Friction Measurement Vehicle

  • Skid Resistance Tester Based on Rotating Disc (DF Tester)

  • The British Pendulum Tester

The second one which was developed in Japan is easy to measure, and has been standardized as an ASTM standard.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

3.SKID RESISTNACE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

Measurement of rolling skid number

(RSN)

Concept of DF Tester


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

3.SKID RESISTNACE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

(2) Relationship with braking force coefficient determined using Friction Measurement Vehicle

Braking force coefficient and RSN

In any type of DF Tester, They have good correlation.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

3.SKID RESISTNACE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

V=20km/h

V=40km/h

V=60km/h

V=80km/h

Braking force coefficient and RSN at each speed

Within the range of V=40 to 60km/h, there was a close correlation.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

3.SKID RESISTNACE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

(3) Investigation of the limits of using rubber pieces

Changes in rubber piece thickness

Changes in RSN during repeated measurements

These figures showed that it is adequate to express the limit of using rubber pieces not by the number of measurements but by the degree of abrasion.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

3.SKID RESISTNACE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

So, we investigated the relationship between the rubber thickness and RSN.

Rubber thickness and RSN (All kinds of pave.)

Rubber thickness and RSN (dens graded pave.)

These figures showed that rubber pieces should be recommended to be exchanged when they have abraded by 0.5mm.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

3.SKID RESISTNACE

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

(4) Investigation of the amount of water be sprayed

  • ASTM does not prescribe the difference in water head for spraying water during measurements. ( It states that the flow should be kept at 3.6L/min when the tank for supplying water is 0.6m above the tester.)We investigated the relationship between the amount of water be sprayed and RSN.

  • Not great influence on RSN from 2.2 to 4.0 L/min

  • Should be investigated in advance to give a flow of 3.6L/min that ASTM said

Water runoff and RSN (dense graded pave.)


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

4.WATER PERMEABILITY

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

4 Water permeability(1) Background

  • In Japan, porous asphalt pavement is increasingly used mainly on major roads to reduce traffic noise and ensure traffic safety by preventing water from splashing during rainfall.

  • The current evaluation method involves measuring the amount of penetrated water by using an in-situ permeability tester like right side figure.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

4.WATER PERMEABILITY

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

(2) Investigation on the inside diameter of the valve

  • The inside diameters of the valves of the testers sold in Japan were found to be 6.8, 8 and 10 mm.

  • So we investigated the influence by these difference.

This figure shows care must be taken on the inside diameter of the valves to be used (the inside diameter of the valves 8 mm or larger).


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

4.WATER PERMEABILITY

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

(3) Investigation on the watertightness of water sealers

  • Various kinds of water sealer are used for permeability testers.

  • Because the current evaluation method directly measures the amount of water that flows into pavement, differences in the watertightness of water sealers are likely to strongly affect permeability measurements.

  • So we investigated the influence depends on water sealers.

This figure shows highly watertight materials such as putty need to be used to seal in order to correctly evaluate.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

5.CONCLUSION

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

5 Conclusion

<SKID RESISTANCE>

  • There was a close correlation between RSN determined by DF Tester and the measurement by Friction Measurement Vehicle, especially within the range of V=40 to 60km/h.

  • The rubber pieces which installed on a rotary disk of DF Tester should be exchanged before they abraded by 0.5mm.

  • The amount of water to be sprayed from 2.2 to 4.0L/min in testing didn’t have great influence on RSN.

<WATER PERMEABILITY>

  • If the diameter of the valves is 6.8mm that is smaller than the inside diameter of the connecting pipes (=8.0mm), it has great possibility to evaluate performance of water permeability unfairly.

  • Highly watertight materials need to be used between road surface and tester in order to correctly evaluate the seepage of rainwater into pavement.


Evaluation methods of road surface performance in japan

5.CONCLUSION

EVALUATION METHODS OF ROAD SURFACE PERFORMANCE IN JAPAN

We will continue to study methods of evaluating various performance indices, aiming to establish methods that can correctly assess the performance requirements for pavement, encourage further innovations of pavement-related technologies, and improve the effects and efficiency of paving works.

Thank you for your kind attention.

K-watanabe@pwri.go.jp