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Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed). Chapter 11 Part 1 Intelligence James A. McCubbin, PhD Clemson University Worth Publishers. Fact vs. Falsehood. 1. The concern with individual differences in intelligence is strictly a twentieth-century American phenomenon.

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Myers psychology 7th ed
Myers’ PSYCHOLOGY (7th Ed)

Chapter 11

Part 1


James A. McCubbin, PhD

Clemson University

Worth Publishers

Fact vs falsehood
Fact vs. Falsehood

1. The concern with individual differences in intelligence is strictly a twentieth-century American phenomenon.

2. Today’s millionaires had well-above average college grades.

3. In general, people with high intelligence scores are more creative than people with low intelligence scores.

4. There is a slight positive correlation between head size and intelligence scores.

5. Today’s American score higher on IQ tests than Americans did in the 1930’s.

6. How quickly 2 to 7 month old babies become bored with a picture is a useful predictor of later intelligence.

7. Among the mentally retarded, males outnumber females by 50 percent.

8. Grouping students by aptitude in school fosters academic achievement.

9. As adopted children grow older, their intelligence scores become more similar to those of their biological parents than to those of their adoptive parents.

10. Aptitude score is a much better predictor of the college performance of whites that it is of blacks.

Origins of intelligence testing
Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Intelligence Test

    • a method of assessing an individual’s mental aptitudes and comparing them to those of others, using numerical scores

Origins of intelligence testing1
Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Mental Age

    • a measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet

    • chronological age that most typically corresponds to a given level of performance

    • child who does as well as the average 8-year-old is said to have a mental age of 8

Alfred binet
Alfred Binet

  • 1. tested to identify which children would struggle in school

  • 2. all follow same course, but at different rates

  • 3. measure mental age to compare with chronological age

  • 4. didn’t want to label or hurt opportunities

Origins of intelligence testing2
Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Stanford-Binet

    • the widely used American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test

      • revised by Terman at Stanford University

      • a. extended upper age

      • b. Stern came up with Intelligence quotient IQ

      • IQ = mental age/chronological age X 100

Origins of intelligence testing3
Origins of Intelligence Testing

  • Intelligence Quotient (IQ)

    • defined originally the ratio of mental age (ma) to chronological age (ca) multiplied by 100

      • IQ = ma/ca x 100)

    • on contemporary tests, the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100

Historical motives and uses
Historical motives and uses

  • To make sure that more intelligent people reproduced

  • Uses

    • Evaluated immigrants (basis for quota’s)

    • WWI army recruits

What is intelligence
What is Intelligence?

  • Intelligence

    • ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations

    • is intelligence a single overall ability or several specific abilities??

    • with the tool neuroscience now offers, can we locate and measure intelligence within the brain

What is intelligence1
What is Intelligence?

  • Factor Analysis (Thurstone)

    • statistical procedure that identifies clusters of related items (called factors) on a test [clusters of test items that measure a common ability]

    • used to identify different dimensions of performance that underlie one’s total score

  • General Intelligence(g)

    • factor that Spearman and others believed underlies specific mental abilities

    • Different abilities in the same package (scholar-athlete)

    • measured by every task on an intelligence test

Multiple intelligences gardner
Multiple Intelligences (Gardner)

  • savants are only good in one or two areas

  • are all of these actually intelligence

  • value depends on culture

Are there multiple intelligences
Are There Multiple Intelligences?

  • Savant Syndrome

    • condition in which a person otherwise limited in mental ability has an exceptional specific skill

      • computation

      • drawing

Aspects of successful intelligence tracking vs mainstreaming
Aspects of Successful Intelligence (tracking vs. mainstreaming)

  • Analytical (academic, problem solving) traditional test with one answer problems

  • Creative: new ideas, reactions to novel situations

  • Practical: everyday tasks, ill-defined with multiple solutions

Are there multiple intelligences1
Are There Multiple Intelligences? mainstreaming)

  • Social Intelligence

    • the know-how involved in comprehending social situations and managing oneself successfully

  • Emotional Intelligence

    • ability to perceive, express, understand, and regulate emotions

Intelligence and creativity
Intelligence and Creativity mainstreaming)

  • Creativity

    • the ability to produce novel and valuable ideas

      • expertise

      • imaginative thinking skills

      • venturesome personality

      • intrinsic motivation

      • creative environment

Brain function and intelligence

Mask mainstreaming)


Question: Long side on left or right?

Brain Function and Intelligence

  • People who can perceive the stimulus very quickly tend to score somewhat higher on intelligence tests

Is intelligence neurologically measurable
Is intelligence neurologically measurable? mainstreaming)

  • Brain size and complexity

    • Some correlation between size and intelligence

    • Areas most used are larger

  • Brain function and Intelligence

    • Processing speed: some indication that fast is more

    • Perceptual speed: again some positive correlation

    • Neurological speed: correlation, but don’t know why

Assessing intelligence
Assessing Intelligence mainstreaming)

  • Aptitude Test

    • a test designed to predict a person’s future performance

    • aptitude is the capacity to learn

  • Achievement Test

    • a test designed to assess what a person has learned

Assessing intelligence1
Assessing Intelligence mainstreaming)

  • Wecshler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC)

    • Test verbal and performance

  • Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)

    • most widely used intelligence test

    • subtests

      • verbal

      • performance (nonverbal)

Assessing intelligence sample items from the wais

VERBAL mainstreaming)


Picture Completion

Picture Arrangement

Block Design

Object Assembly

Digit-Symbol Substitution

General Information


Arithmetic Reasoning



Digit Span

From Thorndike and Hagen, 1977

Assessing Intelligence: Sample Items from the WAIS

Assessing intelligence2
Assessing Intelligence mainstreaming)

  • Standardization

    • defining meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested “standardization group”

  • Normal Curve

    • the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes

    • most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes

The normal curve
The Normal Curve mainstreaming)

Are we getting smarter why
Are We Getting Smarter? Why? mainstreaming)

Flynn effect: gradual increase in intelligence scores

Assessing testing intelligence
Assessing (testing) Intelligence mainstreaming)

  • Reliability

    • the extent to which a test yields consistent results

    • assessed by consistency of scores on:

      • two halves of the test

      • alternate forms of the test

      • retesting

  • Validity

    • the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to

Assessing intelligence3
Assessing Intelligence mainstreaming)

  • Content Validity

    • the extent to which a test samples the behavior that is of interest

      • driving test that samples driving tasks

  • Criterion

    • behavior (such as college grades) that a test (such as the SAT) is designed to predict

    • the measure used in defining whether the test has predictive validity

Assessing intelligence4
Assessing Intelligence mainstreaming)

  • Predictive Validity

    • success with which a test predicts the behavior it is designed to predict

    • assessed by computing the correlation between test scores and the criterion behavior

    • also called criterion-related validity

    • Usefulness decreases as we age, possibly due to narrower range