Toddler – Cognitive Development. AVERAGE COGNITIVE MILESTONES IN THE TODDLER STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT . One Year Old . Two Year Old. Sounds Words Finds hidden objects . Says about 272 words, phrases, and simple sentences Understands simple directions Identifies simple pictures
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AVERAGE COGNITIVE MILESTONES IN THE TODDLER STAGE OF DEVELOPMENT One Year Old Two Year Old Sounds Words Finds hidden objects Says about 272 words, phrases, and simple sentences Understands simple directions Identifies simple pictures Likes to look at books Attempts basic reasoning skills Understands time concept of “before” and “after” Enjoys coloring and painting
1. COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT: • Shaped by both heredity and the child’senvironment. • A positive environment that promotes learning and stimulates the senses. • Positive interactions with caregivers • Availability and variety of appropriate playthings and manipulatives • Plenty of encouragement and positive attitudes
2. Jean Piaget Stages • Toddler’s are in the end of Jean Piaget’s sensorimotor stage and advancing into the preoperational stage.
2a. JEAN PIAGET: TODDLER • Sensorimotor Stage – (12-24 months) • explores and experiments • solves problems • uses imagination • learn through senses/actions • finds hidden objects (object permanence)
***Provide concrete (see and touch) experiences to make connections = hands on objects, activities, visual. 2b. JEAN PIAGET: TODDLER • PREOPERATIONAL STAGE – (2-7 YEARS OLD) • Think in terms of own activities and what they perceive at the moment • Learn through imaginative play • View world in egocentric manner (“MINE”) • Begin to identify symbols and meaning • Symbols = words
3. FOUR METHODS OF LEARNING • a)Incidental Learning = Unplanned learning • b)Trial and Error = A child tries several solutions before finding one that works • c)Imitation = watching and copying others d)Directed Learning = formal instruction (example – classroom setting)
4. CONCEPT DEVELOPMENT • As a child learns to think, they begin to organize information received from their SENSESinto CONCEPTS. • General categories of objects and information. • fruits, color, shape, animals • Anything that moves is alive • dog = all 4 legged animals • ball = all round objects are a ball
Promoting Cognitive Development • Giving time and attention • Take advantage of simple everyday learning opportunities • Allow time for thinking, exploring, and discovering their world (problem solving and decision making) • Give only as much help as the child needs to succeed • Encourage children to draw their own conclusions – “Let’s find out” (see and do) vs. giving them an explanation. • Use Sensory stimulation and concrete learning • Model problemsolving so they can hear how to think their way to a solution. • Maintain positive attitude • Keep explanations simple and on the child’s level
***During this period, most children use 1-3 word/s rather than whole sentences 5. Language Development • Reading to a toddler is important for language and cognitive development • Encourage language development by modeling correct speech • In early speech/language development, nouns are learned first.
6. TECHNIQUES FOR READING OUT LOUD (Choose 3) • Choose age appropriate books • Reading a story is like putting on a play • Snuggle up close so all can see • Keep your focus on the child not the story • Encourage participation, ie: turn pages • Explain unknown words • Point to the words of familiar objects • Read and re-read as often as the child likes • Let the child guide the pace of the story • Read at least 20 minutes every day to your child