The Baltimore Environment and Health DisparityPart 3 Michael A. Trush and Pat Tracey Johns Hopkins Center in Urban Environmental Health MPT Connections Colloquium Jan.20, 2006
BALTIMORE MEMORY STUDYDirected by Dr. Brian S. Schwartz • Noted disparities in cognitive function by race/ethnicity (Env. Health Perspectives Vol.112, March 2004) • Lower median household income and assets • 30% greater bone lead level • Higher PCB levels in serum • Greater % population report a history of stroke • Greater % of population obese as a function of multi-dimensional neighborhood hazards index (MNHI). MNHI takes into consideration ~12 neighborhood variables.
POPs Source: PSR Monitor, Feb, 1998
Some types of fish are a major source of organic mercury exposure to humans. Thus, we need to consider the health benefits of eating these fish versus the risk of mercury exposure in them.This is illustrated below.
10 1 9 O Cl Cl 8 2 3 7 Cl Cl O 6 4 5 2,3,7,8 - Tetrachlorodibenzo - p - dioxin (TCDD) CAS number: 1746-01-6 Dioxin: Chemical Structure
Environmental Justice and Toxic Air Pollution - Maryland Percentage of Maryland high-risk* census tracts by emission source category b) quartile of proportion of African-American a) quartile of median household income *High-risk is defined as greater than the 90th percentile of risk from each source among Maryland census tracts. Error bars represent standard errors. Apelberg et al., 2005
Estimated Cancer Risk From Air Toxics with Median Household Income and Proportion of African-American Residents (Maryland census tracts, 2000) Apelberg et al., 2005
Environmental Justice and Toxic Air Pollution - LA Toxic Air Pollution Exposure and Race in Los Angeles Co. Lopez, 2002
EJ and Traffic Proximity to Schools - CA Green et al., 2004
Increases in PM10 and Ozone Pollution and NYC Hospital Respiratory Admissions –SES vs. Race Particulate Matter (PM10) Ozone Gwynn and Thurston, 2001
EJ, Air Pollution and Birth Outcomes Woodruff et al., 2003
Siting of Toxic Substances Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities - LA Morello-Frosch et al., 2002
SUMMARY • Preventing the occurrence of health disparity is more economical than treating disease. • Clearly, the relationships between environmental factors and health disparity are complex. • Solutions to addressing this relationship need to include: environmental public health tracking; better data linkage at the individual and community levels; involving community groups in planning and database gathering from the beginning. This will require a broad view of environmental health and multidisciplinary approaches .
TO PREVENT HEALTH DISPARITY ASSOCIATED with ENVIRONMENTAL INJUSTICE WE NEED to INSURE THAT ALL HAVE: • CLEAN AIR and WATER • AFFORDABLE, ENVIRONMENTALLY SAFE HOUSING • ACCESS to an AFFORDABLE and HEALTHLY FOOD SUPPLY • NEIGHBORHOODS THAT ARE ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY
Welcome to Tox Town An interactive guide to toxic chemicals and environmental health risks you might encounter in everyday life, in everyday places. http://toxtown.nlm.nih.gov/
References and Additional Reading Apelberg BJ, Buckley TJ, White RH. Socioeconomic and racial disparities in cancer risks from air toxics in Maryland.Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Jun;113(6):693-9. Brown P. Race, class, and environmental health: a review and systematization of the literature.Environ Res. 1995 Apr;69(1):15-30. Review. Clinton WJ. Executive Order 12898. Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. Fed Reg 59:7629 (1994). Green RS, Smorodinsky S, Kim JJ, McLaughlin R, Ostro B. Proximity of California public schools to busy roads. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Jan;112(1):61-6. Gwynn RC, Thurston GD. The burden of air pollution: impacts among racial minorities.Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Aug;109 Suppl 4:501-6. Lopez R. Segregation and black/white differences in exposure to air toxics in 1990.Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Apr;110 Suppl 2:289-95. Morello-Frosch R,Pastor M Jr, Porras C, Sadd J. Environmental justice and regional inequality in southern California: implications for future research. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Apr;110 Suppl 2:149-54. USEPA NEJAC. Ensuring risk reduction in communities with multiple stressors: environmental justice and cumulative risks/impacts. Draft report, April 2 American Lung Association. Urban air pollution and health inequities: a workshop report.Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Jun;109 Suppl 3:357-74. Fox MA, Burke T, Groopman J. Evaluating cumulative risk assessment for environmental justice: a community case study. Environ Health Perspect. 2002 Apr;110 Suppl 2:203-9. National Academies of Science Institute of Medicine. Toward Environmental Justice: Research, Education and Health Policy Needs. National Academy Press, 1999. Samet JM, White RH. Urban air pollution, health, and equity. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2004 Jan;58(1):3-5. Thacker SB, Stroup DF, Parrish RG, Anderson HA. Surveillance in environmental public health: issues, systems, and sources. Am J Public Health. 1996 May;86(5):633-8. Review. Erratum in: Am J Public Health 1996 Nov;86(11):1526.