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The Gas Laws!. Ch 14 Notes. Properties of Gases. Gases are compressible because of the space between particles. Factors that affect gases: Pressure Volume Temperature # of moles present. Boyle’s Law. P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 Inverse Relationship T is constant

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the gas laws

The Gas Laws!

Ch 14 Notes

properties of gases
Properties of Gases
  • Gases are compressible because of the space between particles.
  • Factors that affect gases:
    • Pressure
    • Volume
    • Temperature
    • # of moles present
boyle s law
Boyle’s Law
  • P1V1 = P2V2
  • Inverse Relationship
  • T is constant
  • If one goes up, the other goes down
  • If one goes down, the other goes up
boyle s law sample prob
Boyle’s Law Sample Prob
  • You and your crazy friend want to make funny voices using helium. You obtain a helium tank….

The volume of the gas in the tank is 2 L, but can fill over 200 L at room pressure. Room pressure is 1 atm, what was the original pressure?

charles law
Charles’ Law
  • V1/T1 = V2/T2
  • Direct Relationship
  • P is constant
  • Temp in Kelvin!!! (°C + 273)
  • As one goes up, so does the other
  • As one goes down, so does the other
  • higher temp = more kinetic energy, more collisions, so volume increases
charles law sample prob
Charles’ Law Sample Prob
  • The temperature in the supermarket is a frosty 15 °C. When you buy your bag of chips it occupies 1 L of space. You leave the chips in your car for 1 hour and it reaches a temperature of 27 °C. what is the new volume of the bag?
gay lussac s law
Gay-Lussac’s Law
  • P1/T1 = P2/T2
  • Direct Relationship
  • Temp in Kelvin!!!
  • Volume is constant
  • Sample: The temperature of a gas goes from 30 °C to 50 °C. The starting pressure is 760 mm Hg, what is the ending pressure?
combined gas law
Combined Gas Law
  • P1V1/T1 = P2V2/T2
  • Combines Boyle’s, Charles’, and Gay-Lussac’s Laws
  • Sample: Your mom gives you a balloon that says “I love you!” (awh!). When she hands it to you it has a pressure of 1.5 atm and is at 295 K. The next morning it is at 290 K, has a pressure of 1.2 atm and has a volume of 1.5 L. What was the original volume of the balloon?
molar volume
Molar Volume
  • At STP, 1 mole of any gas occupies 22.4 L
  • STP = 0 °C (273 K) and 1 atm
  • What will the volume of 5 moles of gas be at STP?
  • A sample of gas occupies 11.2 L at STP, how many moles is in the sample?
  • How many atoms are in 5 L of gas at STP?
ideal gas law
Ideal Gas Law
  • relates P, V, T, and number of moles (n)
  • PV = nRT
    • R = 0.0821 (L*atm)/(mol*K) = “ideal gas law constant”
  • ‘ideal’ gases - particles have no volume & no attractive forces
  • real gases are ‘ideal’ gases under all conditions except very high pressure or very low temperature

go to animation

sample problems
Sample Problems…
  • You have 4 moles of helium gas at 1.5 atm and 25 L, what is the temperature?
  • How many moles of argon gas are present in 500 mL at 3 atm and 30 ºC?
gas stoichiometry
Gas Stoichiometry
  • Coefficients in balanced reaction equations are mole ratios AND gas volume ratios!
  • Can do “vol to vol” stoichiometry when P and T are constant
volume volume gas stoich
Volume - Volume Gas Stoich

(These are just like mole to mole

problems - one conversion!)

How many liters of NH3 will be produced if 10 liters of N2 are consumed according to the following reaction:

N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) -----> 2NH3 (g)

volume mass gas stoich example
Volume-Mass Gas Stoich Example

N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) -----> 2NH3 (g)

How many grams of hydrogen gas are required to create 20 L of ammonia gas if the above reaction occurs at STP?

*do volume to volume stoich, then molar volume, then molar mass.

mass volume gas stoich example
Mass-Volume Gas Stoich Example

N2 (g) + 3H2 (g) -----> 2NH3 (g)

How many liters of ammonia gas can be created from 50 grams of nitrogen gas at STP?

*mass to mole stoich, then molar volume