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The Future of Nursing LEADING CHANGE , ADVANCING HEALTH. The report from the Future of Nursing is ALL about change. Empowering Nurses to Lead Every Nurse in Every Setting. North Dakota Action Coalition Leadership Program Change and Innovation .

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the future of nursing leading change advancing health


The report from the Future of Nursing is ALL about change.

empowering nurses to lead every nurse in every setting

Empowering Nurses to LeadEvery Nurse in Every Setting

North Dakota Action Coalition

Leadership Program

Change and Innovation


Leadership Program is divided into 4 main areas. Communication is foundational for learning and understanding about systems. Knowledge of how systems function is necessary to institute change. The ability to accept and engage in change is necessary to be an advocate for health policy.All nurses are expected to lead!

transforming leadership
Transforming leadership
  • Strong leadership is critical if the vision of a transformed health care system is to be realized. Yet not all nurses begin their career with thoughts of becoming a leader. The nursing profession must produce leaders throughout the health care system, from the bedside to the boardroom, who can serve as full partners with other health professionals and be accountable for their own contributions to delivering high-quality care while working collaboratively with leaders from other health professions.
      • FROM: Committee on the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Initiative on the Future of Nursing, at the Institute of Medicine; Institute of Medicine
If you have not already reviewed the Future of Nursing, read it at
  • What is needed is a style of leadership that involves working with others as full partners in a context of mutual respect and collaboration.
  • The new style of leadership that is needed flows in all directions at all levels. Everyone from the bedside to the boardroommust engage colleagues, subordinates, and executives so that together they can identify and achieve common goals (Bradford and Cohen, 1998).
leading change
Leading Change …



Developed by the Change and Innovation Committee

Becky Graner MS, RN


  • Describe 2 change theory models frequently used in nursing.
  • Review how knowledge of systems impacts change proposals.
  • Review the definition of creative and innovative.
  • Describe responses to uninvited changes imposed by an outside force.
  • Identify a situation where one could use a change model to lead change at the workplace.
to successfully complete this learning activity and be awarded contact hours
To successfully complete this learning activity and be awarded contact hours:
  • The learner must
    • Complete the reading assignments.
    • Complete any additional learning activities.
      • You will be asked to use the skills you learned in the Communication module on reflection.
    • Complete course and self evaluations.
    • To earn a certificate of Achievement in Leadership Development you will need to complete the additional project as described at the end of this learning activity.

To be more effective leaders and full partners, nurses need to possess two critical sets of competencies: a common set that can serve as the foundation for any leadership opportunity and a more specific set tailored to a particular context, time, and place.

The former set includes, among others:

  • knowledge of the care delivery system
  • how to work in teams
  • how to collaborate effectively within and across disciplines
  • the basic tenets of ethical care
  • how to be an effective patient advocate
  • theories of change/innovation
  • the foundations for quality and safety improvement
one commonly known behavioral change model is prochaska and diclemente s stages of change
One commonly known behavioral change model is Prochaskaand DiClemente’s Stages of Change

Nurses have long used this model when interacting with patients. It is often applied when trying to change patient behaviors.

  • precontempation
  • contemplation
  • preparation
  • action, and
  • maintenance

Click on this link for a review of this model.

When engaging in system changes we need a body of knowledge and skills that includes the individual and the system.

there are many change theories used by nursing this is a short list
There are many change theories used by nursing… this is a short list..

Appreciative Inquiry: A positive revolution in change (Cooperrider & Whitney)

Open Space Technology (Harrison Owen)

The whole systems approach: Using the entire system to change and run the business (Adams & Adams)

Rapid Results (Murphy, Kriwan, & Ashkenas)

Six Sigma Approach

Action Learning


Holma, P, Devane, T., & Cady, S. (2007). The change handbook, (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Berrett Koehler Publishing.

specific change theories used by nursing
Specific change theories used by nursing






Felgen, J. (2007). I2E2: Leading lasting change. Minneapolis, MN: Creative Health Care Management.

Guanci, G. (2007). Feel the pull: Creating a culture of nursing excellence. Minneapolis, MN: Creative Health Care Management.

i 2 e 2 guiding principles
I2E2guiding principles
  • Make every inquiry “Appreciative”… (refers to Appreciative Inquiry)
  • We have influence (R+A+A = responsibility, authority, accountability)
  • Experience exuberance (unleashing your creative self/ support creative others)
  • Believe in your abundance (everyone has something to offer)
  • Be clear (clarity of purpose)
  • Embody the change (be the change you want to see in the world… Gandhi)
  • We get what we pay attention to (so be careful what you focus on)
  • Patients and families come first (ALL people’s feelings matter)
appreciative inquiry resources
Appreciative Inquiry Resources

You may want to explore the material provided at the links if you are not familiar with Appreciative Inquiry.

evidence based practice is
Evidence-based-practice is
  • The integration of the best research evidence with clinical expertise and patient needs and values.
    • Research is classified by levels ranging from weakest to strongest.
  • Nurses use evidence based practice to promote quality, cost-effective outcomes for patients, families, healthcare providers, and the health care system.
  • It is not “proof” to win an argument or get your way when seeking to make changes.
for further information about evidence based practice see
For further information about evidence based practice see
  • The North Dakota Center for Nursing website at

Research Activities online

PDSA model on the link for an excellent overview on how to use this model.
pdsa model in a nutshell
PDSA model in a nutshell…
  • Plan- define the action/experiment. What will be done, who will do it, and how will it be measured.
  • Do- implement the plan/experiment.
  • Study- was the intended improvement realized? Measure and discuss the results with the team or workgroup.
  • Act- standardize the new process IF the action improved performance. Act to put the process back to its original state if the plan did not improve the process. Determine why and how it did not work and begin again.

Changing a system requires knowledge of both individual and system wide theories. You will need to consider how the individual comes to making changes and you will need to consider how making a change within and between systems occurs.


As you consider making changes in healthcare remember the concepts related to systems.

You must assess your system when you are proposing and planning for changes.


You may be asking: You may wonder how do I become more innovative? How do I become more creative?How do I explore ideas or technology and come up with new ways to use them?

innovative and creative
Innovative and Creative
  • Innovation – to begin or introduce something new (usually taking an idea or way or technology and applying it in a different way).
  • Creative – original, imaginative (usually introducing a new idea/ way that has not been generated before).
  • To be truly innovative you need to be creative.
common patterns expressed by creative people
Common patterns expressed by creative people
  • Curiosity
  • Testing and learning from “mistakes”
  • Highly developed skills at “noticing”
  • Ability and willingness to embrace ambiguity, the unknown, and irony.
  • Cultivate whole brain thinking (art and science)
  • Flexibility and balance
  • Systems thinking skills
common ways we approach creative thinking
Common ways we approach creative thinking
  • As the explorer
    • Look outside your field, look for lots of ideas, see what is obvious, see a different route, look at ideas you tend to avoid. . .
  • As the artist
    • Mix up patterns, look for patterns, look at things from different angle, use of metaphor, how else can you think about and or use things. . .
  • As the judge
    • What is the idea trying to do, what can be salvaged, what assumptions, what is the chance of success, is the idea worth spending time on. . .
  • As the warrior
    • What is your strategy to reach goal, what motivates you, what keeps you from starting, what obstacles, how persistent are you, what are the sacrifices, consequences of failure. . .

From: A kick in the seat of the pants by Roger von Oech

strategies to unlock your creativity
Strategies to unlock your creativity
  • Define the problem or needed change (be specific)
  • Generate ideas (include the outlandish ones)
  • Select the idea and refine it
  • Put the idea into play
  • Evaluate the implementation and the outcome of the idea once it is in play

Click on the link and read the following article for an overview of innovation in nursing. Unlocking the Power of InnovationBarbara A. Blakeney, RN, MSPenny Ford Carleton, RN, MS, MPA, MScChris McCarthy, MPH, MBAEdward Coakley, RN, MSN, MA, Med


Click on the link below to read an overview of common barriers nurses encounter when managing change and innovation. Structural Barriers to Change and Innovation in Nursing by:Beatrice J. Kalisch, Ph.D., RN, FAAN, Titus Professor of Nursing, University of MichiganSuzanne Begeny, MS, RN, Ph.D. Applicant, University of Michigan

Why is change so hard?People tend to like things just the way they are… and we are a creature of habits.

“Habit is a cable; we weave a thread of it each day, and at last you cannot break it.”

Horace Mann

Are you the type of person who is resistant to change?Most of us don’t wake up one day and say … heh, I am going to change!

In fact many of us are excellent at tamping down change, holding off chaos, or flat out deflating any wild ideas…. Often we are the obstacle that prevents ourselves and others from changing even when outside motivation is positive.

There is usually some internal or external motivation for engaging in change. We need to discover those forces when leading change.

Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis is a powerful strategic tool used to understand what's needed for change in both corporate and personal environments. It helps you understand the system in which you are attempting to initiate a change.

Learning exercise: Answer the following questions, write your answers in your reflective journal (from communication module).
  • What motivates you to change?
  • What keeps you from changing?
  • When you are reluctant to change, what is your pattern of response to change? Is your response a habit?
  • Do you routinely find yourself stressed with proposed changes or do you enthusiastically engage in the process?

Reflective Exercise

gaining insight from your answers
Gaining insight from your answers. . .
  • First 2 questions seek to help you uncover your driving and your restraining forces. (Kurt Lewin's Force Field Analysis ).
  • The 3rd question seeks to help you uncover your patterned responses and to consciously make those response choices rather than respond out of habit.
  • The last question seeks to help you pause in the face of change to reflect on your style of response. Are you a late adopter or an early adopter of new ideas? Are you impulsive or are you do you refuse to accept changes?
Take some time to reflect on the questions from this learning exercise. You may choose to write your answers in a journal.

The goal for

facilitating change is to

avoid building resistance.

to sell your idea avoid building resistance
To sell your idea …. avoid building resistance.
  • Engage those impacted by the change.
  • Expect some resistance.
  • Develop a plan to manage resistance.
  • 2 top reasons for resistance to change:
    • lack of awareness of why the change was being made
    • a lack of awareness about and involvement in the change
  • Engage the leaders, managers, supervisors.
  • For complete overview see
pause and reflect on this story about perception and change
Pause and reflect on this story about perception and change.
  • Fable of the Roasted Pigs

Learning activity: Read the article Fable of Roasted Pigs

Consider situations you have experienced that are similar to this story. How do situations such as this make you feel?

You may write your thoughts in your reflective journal.

pulling it all together think about this
Pulling it all together: think about this. . .
  • Nurses are especially prepared to lead change: Consider the nursing process….
    • We assess the situation
    • We diagnose the issue(s)
    • We make goals/ outcomes
    • We use best practices and can be very innovative when we plan for nursing care
    • We implement the plan
    • We evaluate the outcomes
    • We are pros at managing change…
a story of applying theory to practice
A story of applying theory to practice. . .

Carol is a staff nurse in the dialysis unit.

She has noticed the patient flow on some days is especially congested.

She wonders “is there a better way to move patients through the unit while preserving safety and quality?”


#1 Develop a vision or goal for the project that will help guide actions. Carol’s vision is to Improve patient flow while maintaining safety and quality.


After developing her vision she gathers evidence from multiple resources.She assesses then creates or modifies the infrastructure.These pieces include: defining roles, practices, standards, aligning with mission vision.For maximum success she engages all stakeholders in this process. It is the action plan.


Next to provide necessary education Carol and her team must consider the various domains of clinical/technical, interpersonal relationships, critical/ creative thinking, and leadership. Because for the change to stick, one must include not just a change in one’s skill set but a change in behavior.


Again the overall success of the change is evaluated by collection of evidence. The operational definition of success should align with the vision and be measureable. Outcomes assist the team to refine and address any gaps in success.

if carol decides to apply the pdsa framework
If Carol decides to apply the PDSA framework. . .
  • Plan
    • What will be done? Who will do it?
    • Gather evidence from multiple resources.
    • Conduct Force Field Assessment- forces for and against change
    • Develop the plan
  • Do
    • Implement the plan
    • Provide support and education as necessary
  • Study
    • Has the flow improved? (define and devise method to measure flow improvement).
    • Has patient safety and quality been maintained? (define safety and quality as it relates to these patients and devise a method to measure maintenance).
  • Act
    • Positive results?
    • Unexpected benefits?
    • No improvement?
    • Unexpected obstacles?
  • Begin cycle again. . .
leading change1
Leading change

Remember . . .

The new style of leadership that is needed flows in all directions at all levels.

Whether you are leading change or supporting change all nurses are expected to lead.

Nurses are expected to participate in efforts to influence healthcare policy involving healthcare consumers and the profession.

Communication, knowledge of how systems function, how to lead change are all necessary skills to contribute to advocacy and policy development.

creativity resources for further exploration
Creativity: Resources for further exploration.

Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York; Harper Collins Publishing.

Von Oech, R. (1990). A whack on the side of the head: How you can be more creative. Stamford, CT: U.S. Games Systems, Inc.

Gladwell, M. (2005). Blink: The power of thinking without thinking. New York: Little, Brown and Company.

Gelb, M. (1998). How to think like Leonardo da Vinci: Seven steps to genius every day. New York: Bantam Dell.

Thompson, C. (1992). What a great idea! New York: HarperPerennial.

for further information on innovation continuous improvements consider the following resources
For further information on Innovation (continuous improvements) consider the following resources.

Healthcare Kaizen

Graban, M., & Swartz, J. E. (2012). Healthcare Kaizen: Engaging front line staff in sustainable continuous improvements. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.

How innovations catch and spread…

Rogers, E.M. (1995). Diffusions of Innovations, (4th ed.). New York: The Free Press.

resources for further reading
Resources for further reading…

Marciano, P.L. (2010). Carrots and sticks don’t work: Build a culture of employee engagement with the principles of RESPECT. New York: McGraw Hill. (This resource is an excellent overview for both employers and employees).

Kegan, R. & Lahey, L. L. (2009). Immunity to change: How to overcome it and unlock the potential in yourself and your organization. Boston, MA: Harvard Business Press.

To continue to earn your certificate of achievement in leadership development you will need to submit the following:
  • Identify the problem /change you would like to make using one of the change models (you may use one of the models presented here or showcase another model you have used).
  • Share the steps you took to assess, plan for, implement, and evaluated the change (the proposal).
  • Implement the change project, evaluate the outcome.
  • A goal you may have is to have a professional level presentation that can be shared at conferences as a poster presentation, as an oral presentation, or as a written document that you could submit for publication.
    • You may also format the final work in a manner to include in a professional portfolio.