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POWERPLANTS

POWERPLANTS

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POWERPLANTS

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  1. POWERPLANTS BREF Name Expert

  2. Content BREF – LCP Procedure BREF- LCP Important to know BAT for combustion of coal and lignite Content

  3. Content of the BREF-LCP (1) • Chapter 1General information • Chapter 2 Common techniques for energy generation • Chapter 3Common processes and techniques to reduce emissions from large combustion plants • Chapter 4Combustion techniques for coal and lignite

  4. Content of the BREF-LCP (2) • Chapter 5Combustion techniques for biomass and peat • Chapter 6 Combustion techniques for liquid fuels • Chapter 7Combustion techniques for gaseous fuels

  5. Content of the BREF-LCP (3) • Chapter 8Combustion techniques for co-combustion of waste and recovered fuels • Chapter 9Concluding remarks • Chapter 10Annexes

  6. Procedure of the BREF - LCP • Kick off meeting Feb 2000 • Final draft May 2005 • Commission will adopt BREF-LCP in spring 2006

  7. Important to know • BATAEL is not ELV • Lot of split view • Interface IPPC and LCPD

  8. BAT for the combustion of coal and lignite • Unloading, storage and handling • Thermal efficiency • Dust emissions and heavy metals • SO2 emissions • NOx emissions • HF and HCl emissions • NH3 emissions • Water contamination • Waste and residues

  9. Unloading, storage and handling of fuel and additives • Reduce fugitive dust emissions of coal and lignite by: • Effective loading/unloading equipment and closed transport systems • Covered stockpiles • Water or other surface spray systems • Cleaning roads • Maintenance

  10. Reduce water emissions of stockpile by: Collecting and treatment of rainwater Reduce fugitive emissions of lime and limestone by: Enclosed storage and transport systems Reduce safety risk of NH3 for DeNOx by: Use of ammonia-water solution Unloading, storage and handling of fuel and additives

  11. Reduction of CO2 by: Optimisation of energy utilisation Optimisation of generating process Cogeneration most effective option when local heat demand is high enough Thermal efficiency

  12. Unit thermal efficiency (net) in % for coal plants Combined technique new plants existing plants Cogeneration 75 – 90 75 - 90 PC 43 – 47 * FBC > 41 * PFBC > 42 * *improvement is plant specific, indication 36 – 40 % PC = pulverised combustion FBC = fluidised bed combustion PFBC = pressurised fluidised bed combustion Thermal efficiency

  13. MWth new plants existing plants BAT 50 – 100 5 - 20 5 – 30 ESP or FF 100 – 300 5 – 20 5 - 25 ESP or FF comb. with FGD > 300 5 – 10 5 – 10 ESP or FF comb. with FGD split views on all levels Heavy metals reduced with dust. Hg (volatile) reduction less, more with SCR. ESP = electrostatic precipitator FF = fabric filter FGD = flue gas desulphurisation SCR = selective catalytic reduction of NOx Dust emission levels coal and lignite combustion in mg/Nm3 (6 % O2) daily average

  14. SO2 emission levels coal and lignite combustion in mg/Nm3 (6 % O2) daily average MWth new plants existing plants BAT 50 – 100 200 - 400 200 – 400 * 150 – 400 150 - 400 (FBC) (FBC) 100 – 300 100 – 200 100 –250 * > 300 20 – 150 20 – 200 100 – 200 100 - 200 (FBC) (FBC) * BAT is low sulphur fuel or/and Flue gas desulphurisation FGD depending on plant size. Low sulphur fuel for plants > 100 MWth only supplementary measure in combination with FGD. FGD wet scrubbing reduction 92-98% or dry scrubbing 85-92% • split views on all levels FBC = fluidised bed combustion

  15. NOx emission levels associated with BAT for coal combustion in mg/Nm3 (6 % O2) daily average

  16. HF and HCl emissions • With a wet flue gas desulphurisation system reduction of HF and HCl emissions are 98 – 99%. • Emission levels HF 1 –5 mg/Nm3 and HCl 1 –10 mg/Nm3 • In practice leakages in the rotating gas-gas heat-exchanger. • BAT is a modern type of gas-gas heat-exchanger, more possibilities. • Replacement only when heat exchanger needs to be changed or replaced anyway.

  17. NH3 emissions Ammonia slip when SNCR or SCR systems are installed. BAT is an emission of < 5 mg/Nm3

  18. Water contamination • Rainwater from storage areas collected and treated • Waste water treatment plant with wet scrubbing • Remove heavy metals • Decrease amount of solid matter • In BREF more detailed information

  19. Waste en residues • BAT is utilisation and re-use of combustion residues and by-products • Many utilisation possibilities for by-products as ashes with different criteria and plant specific • End-product gypsum of wet scrubbing is utilised in the plasterboard industry

  20. Annex VII dust ELV in mg/Nm3 (6% O2 solid, 3% liquid and gas)

  21. Compliance with the ELV laid down by LCPD should be regarded as a necessary but not sufficient condition for compliance with the requirements of IPPC regarding the use of BAT. Such compliance may involve more stringent ELV’s, ELV for other substances and other media and other appropriate conditions. NEC National emission ceilings LCPD Recital 8