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THE NATIONAL SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGY (NSPS): UNICEF SUPPORT FOR A FRAMEWORK FOR INVESTING IN PEOPLE GOVERNMENT OF GHANA Ministry of Manpower, Youth and Employment (MMYE) November 2007 T. VISION:

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THE NATIONAL SOCIAL PROTECTION STRATEGY (NSPS):UNICEF SUPPORT FORA

FRAMEWORK

FOR

INVESTING IN PEOPLEGOVERNMENT OF GHANAMinistry of Manpower, Youth and Employment (MMYE)November 2007

T

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VISION:

“The National Social Protection Strategy (NSPS) represents the Government of Ghana’s (GoG) vision of creating an all inclusive and socially empowered society through the provision of sustainable mechanisms for the protection of persons living in situations of extreme poverty and related vulnerability and exclusion.”

“The NSPS is founded upon the principle that every Ghanaian matters and is capable of contributing his or her quota to national development.” (NSPS; GoG, 2007)

Submitted to Cabinet – 2007

Key: MDA – Ministries, Dept.’s and Agencies

V+E – Vulnerability and Exclusion

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WHY SOCIAL PROTECTION?

  • GPRS II
  • Ghana Needed:
    • Socially Protective cushions insulate V+E persons from Lifecycle risks (i.e., sickness, unemployment, disability and disaster).
    • A development tool that is a response to, social inequality, economic crisis, disease and related issues of vulnerability/exclusion,
    • An Umbrella concept, covering a wider range of programmes, stakeholders, and social instruments.
  • International/Local Instruments and Legislations
      • The 1992 Constitution, Children’s Act 560 (1998), Persons With Disabilities Act 715 (2005)
      • ILO Convention 182, Convention on Rights of Child
      • Universal Declaration on Human Rights, Mugs,
  • Poor Impact/Targeting of Past SP Programmes in Ghana
social protection for socio economic development
Social Protection for Socio- Economic Development
  • Facilitates investment in human and physical assets thereby reducing the risk of future poverty
  • Enhances risk-taking livelihood strategies among poor people
  • Increases Access to Social Services/Enhanced Social Development
  • Contributes to Achievement of MDGs (ie: MDG 1)
  • Facilitates social and economic cohesion - reducing the likelihood of conflict.
poverty in ghana
POVERTY IN GHANA

Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS 4, 1999):

  • Poverty profile of Ghana indicates that an estimated 40% of Ghanaians are “poor”
  • (GLSS 4) approx. 26.8% of population = Extreme poor, 14.7% are “poorest of the poor”:
    • unable to cater for basic human needs including their nutritional requirements and suffer from poverty across generations.
  • Per capita income in 2006 was approx. $400, and therefore efforts must be made via a comprehensive and sustainable Social Protection strategy to lift the poorest citizens out of the poverty cycle and poise them to contribute to the nation’s development.
  • Poorest HH = Combination of Children/Elderly
poverty in ghana6
Poverty In Ghana

Poverty Band Analysis

child labour in ghana
CHILD LABOUR IN GHANA
  • Profile:
    • Est. 40% of Children 5-17 yrs engaged in Economic Activity (GCLS) = 2.47 million
    • Est. 20% of Children (1.27 million) engaged in CL
    • Est. 242,000 Engaged in Hazardous Labour
  • Supportive Environment for Elimination:
    • Policies, Legislations, National TBP Programme, Donor Mandates
    • Government Institutions and Programmes: MMYE/CLU, NPECLC, MOWAC, DSW
  • WFCL – mining/quarrying, fishing, head porters,

harmful traditional practices, child trafficking, servitude

  • Government is reviewing list of “Hazardous Work” in Children’s Act (560), 1998, Section 91.3
integrated approach to sp complementary programmes
Integrated Approach to SP:Complementary Programmes
  • NSPS interventions will be based upon improvements in existing mechanisms and the formulation of new interventions to address gaps in coverage for the extreme poor
  • Existing Social Protection interventions to Complemented by NSPS:
      • Child Protection, Survival and Development Interventions
      • Labour Market Policies and Programmes
      • Health Programmes
      • Social Insurance Programmes
      • Microfinance
      • Social Welfare Programmes
nsps policy interventions
NSPS POLICY INTERVENTIONS
  • Coordinate Policy Interventions of MDAs for Vulnerable/Excluded Citizens:
    • MDA Technical Working Group on Social Protection
    • National Steering Committee on Social Protection
    • Source Funding to support programmes for sustainability
  • Build Capacity of MDAs to Programme for vulnerable citizens, esp. extreme poor:
    • Sharpen existing interventions in terms of implementation and targeting effectiveness of implementing partners.
    • Ensure compliance at decentralized levels
  • Linkages to Complementary Services:
    • NSPS interventions will facilitate improvements in existing mechanisms and the formulation of new interventions to address gaps in coverage for the extreme poor
proposed broad policy objectives under nsps
PROPOSED BROAD POLICY OBJECTIVES UNDER NSPS
  • OBJECTIVE 1: To increase the ability of Extreme Poor to meet basic needs through improving access to livelihood opportunities, and to social protection
  • OBJECTIVE 2: To reduce extreme poverty and related vulnerability and exclusion at the household level through provision of LEAP Social Grants Programme
  • OBJECTIVE 3: To strengthen the capacity of MDAs to deliver, monitor and evaluate effective social protection programs
leap programme
LEAP Programme
  • Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty (LEAP) Social Grants Scheme:

context specific initiative that will provide both conditional and unconditional cash transfers to Targetedpopulations.

  • Dept. Of Social Welfare (DSW) -Implementing Agency

–From DSW To DSD

  • First in W. Africa to Implement
leap beneficiaries
LEAP Beneficiaries
  • Care Givers Grant Scheme for Orphan/Vulnerable Children (OVCs) (Conditional). Emphasis on:
        • Children Affected By Aids (CABAs)
        • Children with severe disabilities
  • Persons with Severe Disabilities (Unconditional)
        • No Productive Capacity
  • Social Grants for the extremely poor above 65 years (Unconditional)
        • No Subsistence Support
leap pre implementation activities
LEAP Pre-Implementation Activities
  • Design Mission of Local/International consultants to develop implementation modalities for LEAP:
    • Experts from South Africa, Turkey, Zambia Technical Assistance from the ILO (OIT) /IPEC Programme
    • Technical Cooperation Assistance with Govn’t of Brazil – Advisors provided in M&E, Single Reg., Conditionalities, PETI)
  • Comprehensive DSW Inst. Assessment Completed with full Capacity Building Plans at National, Regional and District Levels
leap programme overview
LEAP Programme: Overview
  • Affordability – 5 year pilot < 2% of GDP
  • Payment Amount: GHC ¢8 – GHC ¢15 (Low Dependency, Duration of 3 years, OVC to benefit until age 15 in some cases)
  • HH Definition – Avg. Size = 5
  • Polygamous HH
  • Women preferred recipients – Maximum impact at HH level
  • Target Group: 20% of Extreme Poor (18.2%) GLSS 5
  • Targeting Mechanism: Heavy Targeting Mechanism (Survey Questionnaire, Red. Inclusion Errors)/
  • Monitoring: Baseline Survey, Quarterly Monitoring
  • Conditionality
    • WFCL, NHIS, Births/Deaths, School Attendance, Exp. Prog. On Immunization
  • Single Registry System – Networked/Security Features, In-Line with GSS instruments
  • Linkages with Complementary Services
leap pre pilot programme 2007
LEAP Pre-Pilot Programme 2007
  • LEAP PRE-PILOT:
    • Focus on OVC via CareGivers Scheme
    • Scale-up 21 OVC/NHIS Districts to Implement LEAP (All 10 Regions)
    • 2,000 HH Benefiting
    • Social Grants- $8/HH, Bi-monthly Payment
    • Linkages with Comp. Services while benefiting from LEAP
    • Payments through Post-Office
    • Targeting based on GLSS 5 Data
  • National Sensitization on NSPS/LEAP- 10 Regions
leap and child labour
LEAP AND CHILD LABOUR
  • Explicit Objective of LEAP Programme:
    • “To ensure that no child in the household is trafficked or engaged in any activities constituting the Worst Forms of Child Labour (WFCL).”
  • Partnering with NPECLC Programme for Enhanced Technical Capacity
  • Eligibility Criteria for Districts and Communities
  • Heavy Targeting Mechanisms for Selection of HHs
  • Building Capacity of Supply Side Linkages with Complementary Programmes critical to reduce/eliminate CL in beneficiary HHs.
  • DSW to provide additional Psycho-Social Support Services to HHs.
leap pilot programme planned activities
LEAP PILOT PROGRAMME/ PLANNED ACTIVITIES
  • LEAP 5-Year PILOT Programme 2008-2012:
    • Target Groups: Bottom 20% of Ext. Poor (OVC, PWDs, Aged Poor)
    • 25,000 HH to Benefit
    • 50 Districts – Every Region Represented
    • Social Grants: $8 - $15
    • Payments through Post-Office/ M2M
  • Actualizing Capacity Building Plans for DSW and MMYE
  • Technical Working Group and National Steering Committee on SP – Capacity Building of MDAs to programme for V+E, especially sector prog’s focusing on Child Protection.
nsps framework
NSPS FRAMEWORK

Linkages to Complementary Services