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In the Name of God. . A term originated for first time by Jacque Derrida . A particular kind of practice in reading A strategic device rather than methodology, school and theory of criticism.

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deconstruction

.A term originated for first time by Jacque Derrida

.A particular kind of practice in reading

A strategic device rather than methodology, school and theory of criticism.

A deconstructive reading is a reading is which analyzes the specificity of a text’s critical difference from itself , NOT a random doubt or arbitrary subversion .

Derrida did not propose deconstruction as a mode of literary criticism, but as a way of reading all kinds of texts so as to reveal and subvert the tacit metaphysical presuppositions of western thought.

Deconstruction

metaphysics of presence
Metaphysics of presence

Derrida coins the phrase metaphysics of presence to encompass those ideas such as logocenterism, phonocenterism , the operation of binary opposition & other notions that western thought posits in its conceptions of language and total metaphysics.

summary
Summary
  • Scene 1: Appearance of the ghost.
  • Scene 2: Claudius is marrying Gertrude.
  • Scene 3: Laertes and Polonius are giving advices to Ophelia on her relationship with Hamlet and Laertes is going to France soon, receiving advices from his father before his departure.
  • Scene 4: Hamlet chases the ghost into the woods.
  • Scene 5: The ghost of his father reveals his secret to Hamlet and demands his revenge.
logocenterism
Logocenterism
  • The belief that there is an ultimate reality or center of truth that can serve as the basis for all thought and actions.
  • According to Derrida a variety of terms can function as centers: God, reason, truth, self & humanity, each that can operate as a concept that is self-suffucient and self- originating.
logos in act1
Logos in act1

“Long live the king” (Hamlet, act 1,scene 1) : here king is logo, people make a logo of a king actually they are centering him and on the other hand decentering subjects and other entities. So when someone becomes superior; therefore , others become inferior and here starts the problems.

“indeed on my sword, indeed” (scene 5) again here we notice Hamlet makes a logo of the sword because of his uncertainty and deep doubt about his situation.

aporia
Aporia

Aporia is a deadlock of a relationship , decision , interpretation, which reaches after having exchange the logical reasoning and justificatin, but all in vain…..

Herbert Weir Smyth’s Greek Grammer:

“an artifice by which a speaker feigns doubts as to where he shall being or end, or what he shall do or say.”

slide8

Ghost :

“so art thou to revenge when thou salt hear”

“I’m thy father’s spirit”

“Revenge till all the crime are purged away”

“Revenge if thy dear father love”….

suggestion: hamlet could reveal his father’s identity through tricky acts,as he is smart in nature and in this way no more acts of murder would have happened.

slide9

Ghost :

“With a sudden vigour it doth possent and cured like eager droppings into milk,the thin and wholesome blood and most instant tetterbark’d about most lazer-like,with vile loathomecrust,all my smooth body cut off even in the blossoms of my sin”…

Suggestion:Cloudious should have changed his point of view toward life and concluded that being king is not the only way to progress….

slide10

Detachment

suggestion: Nobody is allowed to ignore all the constructive values of

Others. But we see in some cases instead of positive use of humane forces, They malign them which detriment their ingenuity. The purpose is the right exploitation of people’s .capacity neither demolishing nor too much praising

the idea of breaking the natural attachment which puts into question the concept of naturalness.Hamlet: from that particular fault. The dram of evil. Doth all the noble substance of a doubt to his own scandal.Justification: hamlet is against those who labeled his countries people as alcoholics and suspect their reputation and honorable name.

logos as aporia imposing your own beliefs to others
Logos As Aporia: imposing your own beliefs to others.
  • Hamlet: she married with such dexterity to incestuous sheets. It is not, nor it cannot come to, good.
  • justification: hamlet is resentful of the hasty marriage of his mother, intends to impose his idea of it to Gertrud.
  • Suggestion: futile debate and quibble will not lead to triumph. Instruct others in a way which they are not aware of. You can actually be more knowledgeable than others, but do not talk about it with others.
messianic
Messianic

Deffinition:

Messianic is one of the elements of metaphysics of presence which may survive under the shelter of both theocentrism & anthropocentrism , indeed, any politico-religious or philosophic promise which enjoys the authorized legitimacy may be considered messinic.

messianic1
Messianic

“ MARCELLUS: Thou art a scholar, speak to it Horatio.

BARNARDO: Looks a not like the king? Mark it Horatio.

HORATIO: Most like. It harrows me with fear and wonder.

BARNARDO: It would be spoke to.

MARCELLUS: Question it Horatio.”

justification

. 1: It’s believed ,in Christianity, ghosts of the dead can return to the world whenever they are offended by mundane issues.

messianic2
Messianic

2: Giving Horatio a merit ,as a scholar because of his knowledge in Latin .

Specification of a particular language or a language system, in any religion, is a key strong device to take control over the common people.

Suggestion

Bernardo should not have supposed Horatio as a medium between the ghost and him whether Horatio was gifted.

Bernardo and those deceived by politico-religious logos, who think there must be another entity, mostly gifted one, to link them to a supernatural power, should have known they can be gifted themselves without any medium.

slide15

يَأَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُوا أَنفِقُوا مِمَّا رَزَقْنَكُم مِّن قَبْلِ أ

َن يَأْتي يَوْمٌ لا بَيْعٌ فِيهِ وَ لا خُلَّةٌ وَ لا شفَعَةٌ وَ

الْكَفِرُونَ هُمُ الظلِمُونَ‏

  • (254)بقره
messianic3
Messianic

“ HORATIO :A mote it is to trouble the mind's eye. In the most high and palmy state of Rome, a little ere the mightiest Julius fell, the graves stood tenantless and the sheeted dead Iig did squeak and gibber in the Roman streets; as stars with trains of fire, and dews of blood, disasters in the sun ; and the moist star, upon whose influence Neptune's empire stands, was sick almost to doomsday with eclipse. And even the like precurse of feared events, as harbingers preceding still the fates And prologue to the omen coming on, have heaven and earth together demonstrated Unto our climatures and countrymen.” (Hamlet, Act I, Scene I)

messianic4
Messianic

Justification:

  • Horatio tries to prove their disasters stated, after Julius, was all right.
  • He believes in Emperor’s mighty as the centre of power from which the fate of the country and .adversity or prosperity of society are emerged.
messianic5
Messianic

Suggestion:

  • It should not be regarded a king, leader or any other entity to be an ideal or origin of destiny of the society.
  • There is not any saver, messenger, reformer, ideal and gifted person but ourselves.
  • Each individual can change not only his/her fate but the whole community.
slide19

لَهُ مُعَقِّباتٌ مِنْ بَيْنِ يَدَيْهِ وَ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ يَحْفَظُونَه

ِنْ أَمْرِ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لا يُغَيِّرُ ما بِقَوْمٍ حَتَّى يُغَيِّرُوا

ما بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ وَ إِذا أَرادَ اللَّهُ بِقَوْمٍ سُوْءاً

  • فَلا مَرَدَّ لَهُ وَ ما لَهُمْ مِنْ دُونِهِ مِنْ والٍ

(رعد 11)