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Food Chemistry & Analysis-FST 601 Instructor: Professor David B. Min Credits: 5 Class: M, W, R, F - 9:00 am, Room 114 Food Science Building Laboratory: T- 1:00 - 3:48, Room 124 Food Science Building T.A: JaeHwan Lee and Jeff Boff
DESCRIPTION This course covers the basic chemical structures and properties of moisture, protein, carbohydrate, lipids, minerals and vitamins and their roles in food systems. Also covered will be the principles of chemical and instrumental methods for the qualitative and quantitative analyses of moisture, protein, carbohydrate, lipids, minerals and vitamins. Students will perform experiments to determine major food components using chemical and instrumental methods.
OBJECTIVES • Explain chemical structures and properties of moisture, protein, carbohydrate, lipid, minerals and vitamins. • Explain chemical reactions of major food components in foods during processing and storage. • Discuss food regulations and ethical issues in food processing in America and foreign countries.
4. Explain the principles and applications of analytical methods for food components. 5. Analyze and evaluate the compositions of food products. 6. Command basic food analysis for the advanced food science courses.
GRADING Midterm exam (4) 50% Final 20% Laboratory Report and Examination 20% Homework and Class Participation 10%
LECTURE TOPICS DESCRIPTION Introduction Definition of food, major components of food. Analytical Chemistry Principles & applications of liquid, gas and thin layer chromatography. Principles & applications of spectrophotometer and fluorometer, introduction to spectrum, Beer-Lambert's Law, absorbance, and polarimeter.
LECTURE TOPICS DESCRIPTION Physical States of True solution, colloidal, emulsions, Food Components dispersions, foam and gel. Factors affecting stable dispersion of food ingredients, functions of emulsifiers and stabilizers.
LECTURE TOPICS DESCRIPTION Water Functions of water in food systems, hydrogen bonds, permanent dipole moment, dielectric constant, theories of solvent action. Water activity and food stability, sorption isotherm curve, roles of water in physical properties and chemical reactions in food. Theories and applications of different moisture determination methods.
LECTURE TOPICS DESCRIPTION Protein Classification, nomenclature, and structures of amino acids, basic properties of protein, structure of proteins, protein functional groups and their chemical, hydrophobic, and hydrophobic properties. Isoelectric point and solubility as a function of pH, protein denaturation and its effects on food systems, nutritional quality of protein. Theories & applications of analytical methods for protein and amino acids determination.
LECTURE TOPICS DESCRIPTION Carbonhyrdrates Classification, nomenclature, and structures of carbohydrates, isomers and absolute configurations of carbohydrates, physical-chemical properties of carbohydrates. Sweetness of carbohydrates, functions, of carbohydrates in foods, chemical reactions of carbohydrates. Analytical methods for carbohydrate determination.
LECTURE TOPICS DESCRIPTION Lipids Nomenclature and structures of fatty acids, classifications of lipids, physical and chemical characteristics of different fats. Relationship between chemical structure and fat melting properties. Lipid oxidation mechanisms. Analytical methods for determining different physical and chemical characteristics of fat. Principles and applications of analytical methods for the determination of fat content and fatty acid compositions of foods.
LECTURE TOPICS DESCRIPTION Minerals Ash determination methods. Principles and applications of atomic absorption and flame spectrometries, and chemical methods for elemental analyses. Vitamins Vitamins Water soluble and fat soluble vitamins, chemical reactions and losses of vitamins during processing and storage. Principles and techniques for the vitamin determination.
Text book and References Lecture: Min, D. B. (2001) Food Chemistry 601, Department of Food Science and Technology, The Ohio State University. Food Chemistry 3rd edition by Fennema, O.,1996. Marcel Dekker, N.Y. Food Lipid by Casimir C. Akoh and David B. Min. 1998. Marcel Dekker, N.Y. Food Analysis 2nd Edition by Suzane Nielsen. 1998. An Aspen publication, Gaithersburg, Maryland. Food Lipids and Health by Richard E. McDonald and David B. Min. 1996. Marcel Dekker, N.Y.
FOODS 1. Water 2. Proteins: Essential & Non-essential Amino Acids. 3. Fats: Essential & Non-essential Fatty Acids; Other Lipid Components 4. Carbohydrates: Monosaccharides, Disaccharides, Polysaccharides 5. Minerals 6. Vitamins: Fat-soluble & Water-soluble Vitamins
WHERE TO GET INFORMATION OF INDIVIDUAL COMPONENTS OF FOODS? U.S.D.A. Handbooks and FDA Publications
WHY DO WE ANALYZE FOODS? • Government Standards for Different Foods "Standard of Identity". • Quality Control -- Uniformity of Products; Safety of Products; Ingredient Specifications. • Economic Reasons -- Be Aware of Waste. • Research & development for New Products -- To understand the functional properties of different ingredients. • Nutritional Labeling.
FOOD ANALYSIS Sample: This sample should be representative of the whole material if the analysis of the sample is to have any meaning. Sample should bea composite that adequately samples from each of the populations within the product to be analyzed.
Sample Preparation and Analytical Methods • The samples for Nutrient Analysis shall consist of a composite of 12 sub-samples (consumer units) randomly chosen - 1 from each of 12 cases. • AOAC methods or alternative methods approved by FDA.
ANALYSIS • AOAC = Association of Official Analytical Chemists. • Publishes Official Methods of Analysis and J. of AOAC. • Organized in 1884 by State & Federal Chemists. • Initially fertilizer analyses only. • Now, Food, Drug, Cosmetic and Agricultural products. • Objective • To supply reliable methods of analysis for commodities subject to legal control.