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ENG 081 Grammar Review. THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH. verb : ( abbrev . v.) expresses action, condition, or state of being. noun : ( abbrev . n.) names a person, place, thing, or idea. Vocabulary words. pro noun : ( abbrev . prn.) substitutes for a noun and functions as one.

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THE EIGHT PARTS OF SPEECH

verb:(abbrev. v.) expresses action, condition, or state of being

noun: (abbrev. n.) names a person, place, thing, or idea

Vocabulary words

pronoun: (abbrev. prn.) substitutes for a noun and functions as one

adjective: (abbrev. adj.) describes, modifies, or limits nouns and pronouns

adverb: (abbrev. adv.) describes, modifies, or limits a verb, adj. or other adv.

preposition: (abbrev. p.) relates a noun or pronoun to another word in a sentence

conjunction: (abbrev. con.) links words, phrases, and clauses

function words

interjection: (abbrev. int.) expresses a strong emotion or commands attention

slide3

A part of speech is always determined by its function in the sentence

The mother gave her infant food.

baby

Jim and Sara to play video games.

love

A dictionary can be a good friend, when in doubt.

slide4

Identify each part of speech in this text message from you to me:

like

prep.

tired

adj.

dude,

n.

but

conj.

Wow!

interject.

we

prn.

really

adv.

dig

v.

grammar

n.

slide5

Five Sentence Patterns

In English, we have just five sentence

patterns, which means that you can identify

any sentence’s core by carefully analyzing the

total amount of words and their functions.

To help you get a better focus onall the

patterns, you should first know the difference

between an intransitive and transitive verb form:

An intransitive verb (in the dictionary, v.i.)

is a one that does not need an object to complete

its meaning, e.g., be, rise, walk, fly, sit, lie

A transitive verb (in the dictionary, v.t.) is

one that needs an object to complete its meaning:

raise, write, give, pick, drink, set, lay

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Pattern 1 : Subject + Intransitive Verb

Examples: The studentswent online

to purchase their Longman Reader.

The eagleflew over the trees that were a part

of the national forest in Prescott.

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Pattern 2: Subject + Intransitive Linking Verb +

Subject Complement ( A subject complement = a

predicate noun or a predicate adjective). The following

sentences contain (1) a common intransitive linking

verb and a predicate noun and (2) a common

intransitive linking verb and predicate adjective.

Examples:

P. N.

The English professoris a man who wants to

help his students.

P.A.

B. The English professorfeelsgood when his students

write well.

slide8

Pattern 3: Subject + transitive verb + direct object

d.o.

Examples: Lindsaypicked up asix packon her way to

slamming into a tree.

After BP plugged the well, Lindsay and Mel Gibsonbegan

d.o.

afightto see who could be called “the biggest disaster.”

slide9

Pattern 4: Subject + transitive verb + indirect object + direct object

i.o.

Examples: BarackObamaofferedJoe Biden the

d.o.

vice presidency.

i.o.d.o

The professorbroughtthe students a slide show that

explained the sentence patterns.

slide10

Pattern 5: Subject + transitive verb+ direct object

object complement-----this may be an noun or adj.

Example A:

In On April 23, the Arizona governormade

d.o obj-c-n

SB 1070a contentious issue.

Example B:

On this same day, the law’s passagemade many

d.o obj-c-adj

immigrants unhappy.

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PhrasesandClauses

The two groups of words that do much of the

work within our main clauses are phrases and

dependent clauses. What differentiates the former

from the latter is the lack of a subject and predicate.

Depending on their structure and placement, both types

may function in three ways: adj, adv, or n.

The two groups of wordsthat do muchof the

workwithin our main clauses are phrases and

dependent clauses. What differentiates the former

from the latter is the lack of a subject and predicate

Depending on their structure and placement,

both types may function in three ways: adj, adv, or n.

.

slide12

Wednesday, Jan. 21, 2009: first sentence on the New York Times front page

Barack Hussein Obama was sworn in as the 44th president

of the United States on Tuesday and promised to “begin again the

work of remaking America” on a day of celebration that climaxed

a once-inconceivable journey for the man and his country.

as the 44th president pp/adv

of the United States pp/adj

on Tuesday pp/adv

to “begin again the work inf//n

of remaking America” pp/adj

on a day pp/adv

of celebration pp/adj

that climaxed a once-inconceivable journey adj clause

for the man and his country pp/adj

slide13

Determine if the following phrases and clauses

are adjectives or adverbs (modifiers)

pp/adj

pp/adv

Example: The cat in the blender is staring at me, intently.

dependent clause/adj

Example: Those people who text while driving put other drivers at great risk.

dependent clause/adv

Example: Early on, BP reacted as if very little oil was leaking from the well.

The phrases and clauses that function as modifiers may often be identified by their

positions in the sentence because writers usually place them close to what they modify.

Identifying the noun function for each is a little more difficult.

slide14

To determine a word’s or group of words’ noun function

in a sentence, it is wise to know the four primary noun positions:

subject

direct object

predicate noun

object of the preposition

dependent clause in the subject position

What the English 101students craved was to learn more about grammar.

infinitive phrase in the direct object position

The English 101 students wanted to learn more about grammar.

gerund in the predicate noun position

The English 101 students major task was learning more about grammar.

dependent clause in the object of the

preposition position

The English 101 students were thrilled with what they were learning about grammar.

slide15

Types of sentences according to grammatical structure

Simple: contains one independent clause

Compound: contains at least two independent clauses

Complex: contains one independent and at least one

dependent clause

Compound-complex: contains at least two independent and

at least one dependent clause

slide16

Types of sentences according to grammatical structure

Discussing types of sentences, the professor wrote

a simple one first.

He wrote a compound sentence next; its clauses are

often connected by a semi-colon.

When he wrote a complex sentence, he explained the importance

of the subordinating conjunction.

He finally wrote a compound-complex sentence because he

wanted to show his students the fourth type; then he distributed

a homework assignment, due Monday.

slide17

Can you identify each grammatical structure?

Well, all the major airlines have raised their fees to

check in baggage; in fact, it's getting so expensive

now to bring bags on board, even people who aren't terrorists

are stuffing things into their underpants.

C-CX

It could rain 20 inches this week, which is more bad news for Jay

Leno because he just had all 600 of his cars washed.

CX

The heaviest snowfall in over 60 years is being reported in Beijing,

China; to give you an idea of its severity, the army is now having

to use snowplows to run over dissidents.

C

One of Osama Bin Laden’s kids is writing a book with examples like

his turning eighteen and getting permission from dad to blow up

his first car.

S

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What kind of a sentence is this one?

Barack Hussein Obama was sworn in as the 44th president

of the United States on Tuesday and promised to “begin again the

work of remaking America” on a day of celebration that climaxed

a once-inconceivable journey for the man and his country.

Barack Hussein Obama was sworn in as the 44th president

of the United States on Tuesday and promised to “begin again the

work of remaking America” on a day of celebration that climaxed

a once-inconceivable journey for the man and his country.

CX

slide19

Need some additional grammar help?

Guide to grammar and writing

slide20

The Sentence Fragment Error Chp. 51

A fragment is a group of related words that begin with a capital letter and end with a final mark of punctuation; however, in formal writing, it is unacceptable because of its incompleteness. The three most common fragmented elements are phrases, the second half of a compound predicate, and dependent clauses.

slide21

The Comma Splice Error: Chp. 52

A comma splice occurs when a writer connects two independent clauses with only a comma; in formal writing, this is unacceptable.

IC,IC

Knowing the four types of sentences (grammatical structure) can be helpful:

Simple

Mistake can never occur!

Complex

Compound

Compound-complex

slide22

The Run-0n Error: Chp. 52 Aka: a fused sentence

A run-on occurs when a writer places two independent clauses together without anything in between them in formal writing, this is unacceptable.

ICIC

Knowing the four types of sentences (grammatical structure) can be helpful:

Simple

Mistake can never occur!

Complex

Compound

Compound-complex

slide23

Chps 53 and 55a

The two forms of agreement in sentences are

subject and verb and antecedent and pronoun.

Mistakes often occur when students do not match

the “number” of one of the items to the other’s.

Example one:

In this sentence, pick out the verb or verb form which

(appear, appears) in parentheses.

Example two:

Because of the numerous financial scandals --or”Madoffs”

in our country, ethics seems to have lost (their, its) appeal.

slide24

Who or Whom?

Who (whoever) is always a subjectivecase

relative pronoun, and whom (whomever) is

always the objective case relative pronoun.

In the following sentence, is the usage correct?

Who are you staring at?

How about in this one?

He taught the pronoun usage to whoever would listen

And this one?

For who is this an issue?

slide25

Affect or Effect?

Affect is always a verb meaning “to have an influence on.”

Effect is most often used as a noun meaning “a change resulting from an action,” but it can be used as a verb meaning“to bring about.”

In the following sentence, is the usage correct?

The English 101 students admitted that the

PowerPoint presentation had an affect on them.

How about in this one?

The English professor students hoped it would help

them effect a better understanding of grammar and usage.