Outline • Introduction • Definitions • Free Radicals • Antioxidants (AOx) • Oxidative stress • Types of AOx • Different AOx: different mechanisms • Dietary AOx • Flavonoids • Measuring AOx: ORAC 3. Health Effects • Health effectsforVitamins E, A,C and Flavonoids • The AOx Trend: products and claims (Innova) • MarketforAOx • AOx trend • Products and claims forConfectionery and Bakery 5. Summary
Definitions • Oxidation= Losing electrons • Reduction= Gaining electrons
Free Radicals 1 • Oxygen→ required for life but it is highly reactive • During metabolism or infection reactive oxygen species (ROS) are formed→Free radicals (FR) • H₂O ₂ = Hydrogen peroxide • HOCl = Hypochloric acid • OH⁻ = Hydroxyl radical • O₂⁻ = Superoxide anion • Free radicals = unstable and highly reactive molecules (due to unpaired electron) • The body can initiate the creation of free radicals to defend itself against viruses or bacteria. FR can be formed by exposure to UV light, cigarette smoke, radiation, pollution etc. • Other Free radicals formed during inflammation and disease: • Reactive Nitrogen Species (RNS) Foster, 2007; EUFIC, 2009; IFIC, 2009
Free Radicals 2 • Free radicals attack stable molecules and steal an electron- creating a new radical→ chain reaction. Fatty acids DNA Proteins Lipid peroxidation → CVD Mutations→ Cancer Enzyme inhibition Denaturation & degradation Halliwell, 1997; Foster, 2007 *CVD: cardiovascular disease
Antioxidants • Antioxidants (AOx) are part of the defense system of the body protecting against free radical damage. • Most AOx donate an electron to FR without becoming FR themselves → chain reaction stopped. • AOx do not remove FR completely → keep them at an optimum level. • Dietary AOx not produced in the body→ Food • Consumption of AOx is thought to provide protection against oxidative stress → positive impact on health Halliwell, 1997; Foster, 2007 Image from www.welchs.com
Oxidative stress and disease FR AOx Oxidative Stress ChronicInjury Cancer, atherosclerosis, CVD, cataracts, immune dysfunction, Alzheimer´s disease, age-related macular degeneration, rheumatoid arthritis, aging, etc.
Types of Antioxidants Different types of AOx→different AOxMechanisms Different types of AOx→different measurementmethods ORAC FRAP TRAP Pokorný, 2007
ORAC* Nuts Fruits Spices/herbs Cocoa Wine Tea *ORAC= Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
ORAC New High Antioxidant Chocolate: Ox-Anti ORAC method set up internally to measure AOx capacity of fruits, chocolates, flours, etc. Ox-Anti (Belcolade) Acticoa (Callebaut) Berries Topfil Blueberry Topfil Berrissimo Rye flour Wheat flour Values measured internally and subject to a certain standard deviation. Please refer to the lab for more information about these ORAC values.
A Types of Antioxidants 2 Different types of AOx→different AOxMechanisms, onedefense system Enzymes Dietary AOx Other Low molecular weight AOx SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) Vitamin E, Vitamin C, β-Carotene, Flavonoids Uric Acid Glutathione Vitamins Polyphenols Flavonoids Non- Flavonoids E C Flavonols→ Quercetin Stilbenes → Resveratrol Flavones Phenolic alcohols Flavanols→ Catechin Hydroxybenzoic acids Flavanones Hydroxycinnamic acids Iso-Flavonoids Lignans Anthocyanidins Geissler & Powers, 2005 ILSI Europe, 1996
Dietary Antioxidants Pokorný, 2007 Geissler & Powers, 2005 Foster, 2007
Dietary Antioxidants Pokorný, 2007 Geissler & Powers, 2005 Foster, 2007
Flavonoids Flavonoids→ most commongroup of plant phenolics → +4000 identified in plants → Share a commonstructure (2 Benzenerings and a centralpyran ring) whichdeterminestheirAOxfunctioning • Flavonols • Flavanols • Flavonones • Anthocyanins • Isoflavones • Flavones D´Archivio, 2007
Flavonoids D´Archivio, 2007
Health Effects • Epidemiologic evidence suggesting a protective effect of Fruits & Vegetables (F&V) against Cancer and Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). • Meta-analysis by Gladys Block (2001) • Studied relation between F& V and different types of Cancer • 126/ 156 studies → beneficial effects • Lung Cancer→24/25 studies showed beneficial effects. • Conclusion: Increased consumption of F&V is protective against Cancer and CVDs Hypothesis: F&V containcompoundsresponsiblefor the healtheffects ILSI Europe, 1996
Health Effects- Vitamin E *ATBC= Alpha Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Trial. *IHDis a disease characterized by reduced blood supply to the heart muscle, usually due to coronary artery disease (atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries) Angina Pectoris: severe chest pain. *MONICA= Monitoring trends and determinants In Cardiovascular disease *CHD is Coronary heart disease refers to the failure of coronary circulation to supply adequate circulation to cardiac muscle and surrounding tissue.
Health Effects- Vitamin A AOx – canpotentiallybecomepro-oxidative! Possibility: Cancerprocess was acceleratedbyβ-Carotene in smokers *ATBC= Alpha Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene Cancer Prevention Trial. * CARET=Beta Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial
Health Effects- Vitamin C Li and Schellhorn, 2007 EPIC= European Prospective Investigation of Cancer
Conclusions on Health Effects • Good evidence for: • the role of FR in Cancer and CVD • modulation of FR events by AOx • Human studies suggest: • correlation between (some) AOx intakes and serum concentration and incidence of mortality from cancer and CVD- • But, results are not consistent! • Optimal dosages are unknown: • the level of intake of AOx nutrients desirable for optimal nutrition is still an open question. • Genetics might play a role. • Fundamental questions: • What causes the health effects? The food matrix as a whole or the individual components ? • F& V or supplements? ? IFIC, 2006 Willet, 20001 Toner, 2004
The Innova Database 4. The Aox trend: Products and claims
Market for AOx 10% of product launches positioned as “Antioxidant” were tracked in the Bakery and Cereals category 7% of product launches positioned as “Antioxidant” were tracked in the Confectionery category 5 year Data from 02/2004 – 02/ 2009
Antioxidant Trend for 2009 (Mellentin,J.) In 2008, AOx were listed as a “Key Trend” for the year. In 2009, AOx are predicted to become a “Micro Trend” The message has become a category standard→ “all teas and all dark chocolates contain AOx” Regulatory problem→ what kind of evidence needed to prove health effects? Industry option= add a point of difference to the AOx message by using specific and scientific marketing (terms like Flavonoids and ORAC) Industry option= add a point of difference to the AOx message by combining different sources such as Superfruits and Dark Chocolate Mellentin, 2008- 10 Key Trends in Food, Nutrition and Health.
Bakery & Cereals and Confectionery categories Bakery and Cereals category Confectionery category 5 year Data from 02/2004 – 02/ 2009
Confectionery “ With Grape pulp extract, naturally-rich in Antioxidants” “Natural source of flavanol antioxidants. measured by an ORAC(Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) “With Cacao Flavanols for good blood circulation” Germany USA “ With Chilli, natural-source of Antioxidants” “Natural source of Flavanol Antioxidants” “ Extra Antioxidants from ACTICOA®” “Natural source of Antioxidant Flavonoids” USA Brazil UK Netherlands
Bakery and Cereals “Natural Antioxidants and slow energy” “Fiber plus Antioxidants” Hungary “Purpur wheat, contains 10 times more Anthocyanins than other kinds of wheat. Anthocyanins have an antioxidant effect”. “A soft, sliced bread with sunflower seeds. Contains vitamins and minerals, antioxidants, and fiber” “With two sources of antioxidants: green tea extract and vitamin E” USA Sweden Sweden “A better protection against oxidant stress, thanks to addition of natural antioxidants.” “with precious antioxidants in order to protect your body from aging” India France
Other products “Contains Antioxidants” Cranberry and Wine sauce “Naturally rich in Catechins” “Coffee Arabica enriched with Antioxidants” UK Portugal France « Contains natural antioxidants ». Russia “With fibers, Antioxidants, Vitamins and Minerals (from berries)” “Source of Antioxidants” « natural antioxidants » • India NL
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