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Intimate Terrorism and Other Types of Domestic Violence. Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D. Sociology, Women's Studies, and African & African American Studies Penn State. Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991. Texas Tech October 14, 2008. McKeesport, PA.

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Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

Intimate Terrorism and Other Types of Domestic Violence

Michael P. Johnson, Ph.D.

Sociology, Women's Studies, and

African & African American Studies

Penn State

Photos from Donna Ferrato, Living with the Enemy. New York: Aperture, 1991

Texas Tech

October 14, 2008

McKeesport, PA


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

  • The Continuing Gender Debate

    • “It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men”

    • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction

  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

    • The three major types

    • Gender differences and sampling biases

    • Other differences

  • Implications for Research and Theory

    • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed

    • Need for differentiated theory

  • Implications for Intervention

    • Screening/triage

    • Intervention with perpetrators

    • Support for survivors

    • Custody and access issues


Agency studies prove that men are the primary batterers
Agency Studies “Prove” ThatMen Are the Primary Batterers



A small theory that reconciles the contradiction
A Small Theory MenthatReconciles the Contradiction

  • There is more than one type of partner violence

  • The different types of partner violence are differently gendered

  • And both major sampling plans are biased

    • Agency studies are biased toward coercive controlling violence, perpetrated almost entirely by men

    • General survey studies are biased toward situationally-provoked violence, which women are as likely to perpetrate as are men


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

  • The Continuing Gender Debate Men

    • “It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men”

    • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction

  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

    • The three major types

    • Gender differences and sampling biases

    • Other differences

  • Implications for Research and Theory

    • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed

    • Need for differentiated theory

  • Implications for Intervention

    • Screening/triage

    • Intervention with perpetrators

    • Support for survivors

    • Custody and access issues


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

Intimate Terrorism Men

Violent Coercive Control

Violent Resistance

Resisting the Intimate Terrorist

Situational Couple Violence

Situationally-provoked Violence

Mutual Violent Control

Two Intimate Terrorists


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

Intimate Terrorism Men

Subtypes: Emotionally dependent; Antisocial


Control scale
Control Scale Men

Thinking about your current husband, would you say he…

  • …is jealous or possessive?

  • …tries to provoke arguments?

  • …tries to limit your contact with family and friends?

  • …insists on knowing who you are with at all times?

  • …calls you names or puts you down in front of others?

  • …makes you feel inadequate?

  • …shouts or swears at you?

  • …frightens you?

  • …prevents you from knowing about or having access to the family income even when you ask?

NVAWS


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

Intimate Terrorism Men

Violent Coercive Control

Violent Resistance

Resisting the Intimate Terrorist

Situational Couple Violence

Situationally-provoked Violence

Mutual Violent Control

Two Intimate Terrorists


Gender symmetry asymmetry by type of violence 1970s pittsburgh violent husbands and wives
Gender Symmetry/Asymmetry Menby Type of Violence(1970s Pittsburgh: Violent husbands and wives)


The biases of major sampling plans violent men pittsburgh britain
The Biases of Major Sampling Plans Men(Violent men: Pittsburgh & Britain)


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

Pittsburgh data Men

Intimate Terrorism

76% severe

75% escalated

1/25 couples

29% mutual

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

28% severe

28% escalated

1/8 couples

69% mutual

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc.


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

British data Men

Intimate Terrorism

43% severe

78% escalated

15% mutual

General Motive: To control the relationship

Situational Couple Violence

13% severe

20% escalated

87% mutual

Situational Motive: To win, get attention, get even, etc.


Women s health outcomes by type of male violence
Women’s Health Outcomes Men by Type of Male Violence


Relationship outcomes by type of male violence
Relationship Outcomes Menby Type of Male Violence


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

  • The Continuing Gender Debate Men

    • ““It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men”

    • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction

  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

    • The three major types

    • Gender differences and sampling biases

    • Other differences

  • Implications for Research and Theory

    • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed

    • Need for differentiated theory

  • Implications for Intervention

    • Screening/triage

    • Intervention with perpetrators

    • Support for survivors

    • Custody and access issues


We need to re assess everything
We Need to Re-assess Everything Men

  • Intergenerational “transmission” (Stith et al.; Johnson & Cares)

    • SCV: d = .11 IT: d = .35

    • SCV: odds ratio = 2.40 IT: odds ratio = 7.51

  • Marriage (Macmillan & Gartner)

    • SCV: b = -.62 IT: b = .58

  • Gender traditionalism (Sugarman & Frankel)

    • SCV: d = -.14 IT: d = .80

  • Hostility toward women (Holtzworth-Munroe et al.)

    • Non-viol, SCV = 154, 153 IT, IT = 135, 131

  • Gender, frequency, severity, escalation, mutuality, impact on victim, impact on children, etc.


Need for differentiated theory
Need for Differentiated Theory Men

  • Intimate terrorism

    • Coercive control theory

    • Gender theory

    • Theories of paternalism

  • Violent Resistance

    • Coping

    • Entrapment

  • Situational couple violence

    • Family conflict theory

    • Communication

    • Anger management

    • Substance abuse


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence

  • The Continuing Gender Debate Men

    • “It’s all men” vs. “Women do it just as much as men”

    • A small theory that reconciles the contradiction

  • A Control-based Typology of Partner Violence

    • The three major types

    • Gender differences and sampling biases

    • Other differences

  • Implications for Research and Theory

    • Everything we “know” has to be re-assessed

    • Need for differentiated theory

  • Implications for Intervention

    • Screening/triage

    • Intervention with perpetrators

    • Support for survivors

    • Custody and access issues


Screening triage
Screening/Triage Men

  • Different models appropriate for different clients

  • To screen we need information on both control and violence for both partners

  • Safety first!

    • Safety planning—as if you were dealing with intimate terrorism

    • If SCV seems likely, try individual application of other approaches

    • If SCV and safety become clear, move to couple approaches with protections in place


Intervention with perpetrators
Intervention with Perpetrators Men

Outcomes of Duluth-type

Batterer Intervention Program

(Thirteen Months Post-adjudication)

Eckhardt et al. 2008


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence
Success of Different Intervention Strategies by IT Sub-type Men(Percent non-violent two years after completing treatment)


Intimate terrorism and other types of domestic violence
Intervention with Perpetrators MenHold them all accountable in the criminal justice systemto provide an essential motivation for change

  • Intimate terrorism

    • Control-focused education

    • Perhaps different tactics for sub-types

  • Violent resistance (Support for survivors)

    • Alternatives to violence

    • Neutralize the entrapment

  • Situational couple violence

    • Source of conflict

    • Anger management

    • Communication counseling

    • Substance abuse rehab


Support for survivors
Support for Survivors Men

  • Intimate terrorism

    • Safety planning

    • Long-term support

    • Alternatives to violent resistance

    • Empowerment to leave

    • Transitional support

  • Situational couple violence

    • Source of conflict

    • Anger management

    • Communication counseling

    • Substance abuse rehab


Custody and access issues
Custody and Access Issues Men

  • Separation instigated violence

  • Manipulative accusations

  • Resources for thorough evaluation

  • Custody/access options

    • No contact

    • Supervised access

    • Supervised exchanges

    • Parallel parenting, minimal couple contact

    • Joint custody/Co-parenting


We make big mistakes if we don t make big distinctions
We make big mistakes if we don’t make big distinctions. Men

Different types of partner violence have…

  • Different causes

  • Different developmental trajectories

  • Different effects

  • Different successful intervention strategies


Support your local women s shelter
Support Your Local Women’s Shelter Men

Safety

Support

Information

Advocacy

Philadelphia, PA