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“Modeling the MER Mission”. Chin Seah NASA Ames Research Center. Outline. Mars Exploration Rover Mission Mission Operations Modeling MER Brahms Model Brahms Model Affecting Design of Mission Operations Predictive Model of Mission Operations Lessons Learned.

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modeling the mer mission

“Modeling the MER Mission”

Chin Seah

NASA Ames Research Center

outline
Outline
  • Mars Exploration Rover Mission
  • Mission Operations Modeling
  • MER Brahms Model
  • Brahms Model Affecting Design of Mission Operations
  • Predictive Model of Mission Operations
  • Lessons Learned

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

mar exploration rover mission find past existence of water
Mar Exploration Rover Mission“Find Past Existence of Water”

Mars Exploration Rovers (MER)

Spirit (MER-A) at Gusev Crater

Reached Mars on Jan 4, ‘04

Opportunity (MER-B) at Meridiani Planum

Reached Mars on Jan 25, ‘04

90 day mission which was extended.

Science Payloads

Panoramic Camera:

Providing the geologic context

Rock Abrasion Tool

Grinding Outside of Rocks

Mössbauer Spectrometer

Identifying Iron-Bearing Minerals

Miniature Thermal Emission Spectrometer

Identifying Minerals at the Site

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

what is mission operations
What is Mission Operations?

“The control of one or more information gathering devices on board a vehicle in space and the associated operation of the vehicle systems in order to support information gathering.”

Wall, S. & K. Ledbetter, ’91

Design of Mission Operations for Remote Sensing

(Magellan Mission to Venus)

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

why work practice modeling for mission operations
Why Work Practice Modeling for Mission Operations?
  • New designs for
    • Facilities
    • Organization
    • Processes
  • Complex work system
    • Scientists and Engineers
    • 24*7
    • Multiple Time Zones
    • Data Systems (new & legacy)
  • Design close to implementation stage
  • Trial and error of design during Operations Readiness Tests

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

where did data for model come from
Where did data for model come from?
  • JPL’s Tactical Timeline in Excel spreadsheets, design specifications, software documentation, etc.
  • Participated in Mission Design Team’s design sessions
  • Interviewed people that were part of MER mission operations.
  • Observed JPL’s Operational Readiness Tests.

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

what to model
What to model?

Nominal Surface Tactical Timeline

  • Organizational Structures and Roles
  • Operational procedures for roles
  • Engineering and Science decision making and planning
  • Rover on Mars
    • Receive commands from Earth (Uplink)
    • Command execution
    • Science Payload/Instrument
      • Capture of Science data
    • Send data back to Earth (Downlink)
  • Flow of Mission data
    • From Downlink to Uplink to Downlink of science and engineering data
    • Creation, flow and use of intermediate data
    • Communication between people, and between people and systems
  • Uplink rover command generation

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

mer organization
MER Organization

Mission Operations at JPL

    • 50 Science Team Members
    • 30 Engineering Team Members
  • Two Rover Teams (MER A & B)
    • 25 STM & 15 ETM per Rover Team
  • Two Shifts per Martian Day/Sol
    • Shift handovers
  • 4 floors within building
  • 90-Sol Minimal Mission Duration
    • Jan 2004 - Mar 2004
    • MER A & B Operations overlap
    • Different Time Zones (2 on Mars, PDT at JPL)

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

mer organization model
MER Organization Model

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

slide10

RSVP

SAP

SAP

SAP

RSVP

RSVP

SAP

CE

SAP

SAP

RSVP

MAPGEN

MAPGEN

Scientist

Scientist

Scientist

SOWG

Chair

SOWG

Chair

TAP

TAP

Engineer

PUL

SIE

PUL

PUL

RP

PUL

Uplink Tools Process Flow

(Similar to traditional “Order Processing”)

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Plan

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

mer information model
MER Information Model

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

clock schedule and agents
Clock, Schedule and Agents

CIP Clock Object

Match Timeline

with Mars time

Reads Mars time

Mars Clock Object

Timeline Object

Broadcasts time when match Timeline

Activity happens within

Timeline

Contains timeline activities

Is timeline over?

Start next task?

Do I start my shift?

Contains mission operations activities

Reads Associated Schedule

Schedule Object

Mission Operations Activity Conceptual Object

Schedule Group Agent

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

mer clock model
MER Clock Model

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

simulation of mer clock
Simulation of MER Clock

Match Timeline

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

issues of modeling a mission operations
Issues of Modeling a Mission Operations
  • Actual Work Practice was different from design
    • We know this from our theory of work practice
    • How useful is model in design?
  • Unable to predict workflow failure
    • Round-Trip data tracking issue not identified
      • This could have been identified and solved in model design but …

Much detail about mission data and systems needed

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

how useful is model in design
How Useful is Model in Design?
  • Synchronizing Communications of Key Personnel
    • People could not verbally communicate information because they needed to be in different places at the same time for meetings
  • People’s work hours were too long
    • A shift was about 8 to 10 martian hours

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

other uses of mer brahms model
Other Uses of MER Brahms Model
  • Procedures for Mission Operations Personnel
  • Assist in Mission Operations Planning.
    • Creation of huge paper poster
  • Analysis of Mission Operations
    • Mars-based time versus Earth time (24 x 7 & 8 hours)
  • Simulation Visualization
    • Timeline view of information on Rover Activity Plan
    • Communication networks creation and growth

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

predicting workflow failure sap and mapgen scenario

Constraint

Editor

MAPGEN

SAP

MAPGEN

SOWG

Chair

SOWG Chair

Tactical

Activity

Planner

Tactical Activity Planner

Predicting Workflow Failure:SAP and MAPGEN Scenario

Without Sequence or

Timing Constraints

Plan

SAP User Interface

Plan

With Sequence and

Timing Constraints

Interface ≠ Specification

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice

what have we learned
What have we learned?

How to model Mission Operations Systems

Level of detail to model

More narrow/deep or more broad/shallow

Use of BRAHMS?

  • Representation
    • + Mars time vs. Earth time
    • + Multiple MER teams
    • + Systems
    • + Information flow
    • + Plans and schedules
  • Usefulness for mission designers
    • - Not easy to retrieve information
    • - Not easy to change model
    • - Difficult to model things
    • - Difficult to determine needed level
    • - Difficult what-if scenarios

Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation of Organizations and Work Practice