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Ch 24 Sec 1: Brown and Montgomery. Highlight in your Reading Quiz Notes Plessy v. Ferguson “separate but equal” Jim Crow Laws de facto segregation NAACP Thurgood Marshall Brown v. Topeka Board of Education Southern Manifesto Rosa Parks Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.

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Getting to California


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getting to california

Ch 24 Sec 1: Brown and Montgomery

  • Highlight in your Reading Quiz Notes
  • Plessy v. Ferguson
  • “separate but equal”
  • Jim Crow Laws
  • de facto segregation
  • NAACP
  • Thurgood Marshall
  • Brown v. Topeka Board of Education
  • Southern Manifesto
  • Rosa Parks
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
  • passive (non-violent) resistance
  • Gandhi
  • Montgomery Bus Boycott
Getting to California
intro 2

Textbook Assignment (pp.746-750)

Section 1: The Movement Begins

  • How is de facto segregation in the North different from legal segregation in the South?
  • How did the Supreme Court decision in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas differ from the Plessy v. Ferguson case?
  • How did the South respond to the Supreme Court’s decision in Brown v. Board?
  • Why did Martin Luther King, Jr., insist on a path of nonviolent resistance in the Montgomery Bus Boycott in 1955?

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Intro 2
intro 21

Chapter Objectives

Section 1: The Movement Begins

  • Explain the origin of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference. 
  • Discuss the changing role of the federal government in civil rights enforcement.

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Intro 2
section 1 1

Guide to Reading

Main Idea

After World War II, African Americans and other supporters of civil rights challenged segregation in the United States. 

Key Terms and Names

  • separate-but-equal 
  • Linda Brown 
  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. 
  • Southern Christian Leadership Conference
  • de facto segregation 
  • NAACP 
  • sit-in 
  • Thurgood Marshall 

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Section 1-1
section 1 6

The Origins of the Movement(cont.)

  • In 1896 the Supreme Court had declared segregation legal in Plessy v. Ferguson.
  • This ruling had established a separate-but-equal doctrine, making laws segregating African Americans legal as long as equal facilities were provided.

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Section 1-6
section 1 61

The Origins of the Movement(cont.)

  • “Jim Crow” laws segregating African Americans and whites were common in the South after the Plessy v. Ferguson decision.

(pages 746–748)

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Section 1-6
section 1 7

The Origins of the Movement(cont.)

  • In places without segregation laws, such as in the North, there was de facto segregation–segregation by custom and tradition.

(pages 746–748)

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Section 1-7
fyi 1 1a

De facto Segregation in Houston?

Houston’s Population Distribution

2000 Census

The darker green the color = high density of population of that ethnic group

Population distribution of “whites” (white flight?)

FYI 1-1a
fyi 1 1a1

De facto Segregation in Houston

Houston’s Population Distribution

2000 Census

The darker green the color = high density of population of that ethnic group

Population distribution of “African Americans”

FYI 1-1a
fyi 1 1a2

De facto Segregation in Houston

“Whites”

“African Americans”

FYI 1-1a
fyi 1 1a3

Whites

Blacks

Asians

Hispanics

FYI 1-1a
section 1 71

The Origins of the Movement(cont.)

  • The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) had supported court cases trying to overturn segregation since 1909.
  • It provided financial support and lawyers to African Americans.

(pages 746–748)

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Section 1-7
section 1 8

The Origins of the Movement(cont.)

  • African Americans gained political power as they migrated to Northern cities where they could vote.
  • African Americans voted for politicians who listened to their concerns on civil rights issues, resulting in a strong Democratic Party.
  • In Chicago in 1942, the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) was founded by James Farmer, Jr.
  • CORE used sit-ins as a form of protest against segregation and discrimination.

(pages 746–748)

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Section 1-8
section 1 9

The Origins of the Movement(cont.)

  • In 1943 CORE used sit-ins to protest segregation in restaurants.
  • These sit-ins resulted in the integration of many restaurants, theaters, and other public facilities in Chicago, Detroit, Denver, and Syracuse.

(pages 746–748)

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Section 1-9
section 1 12

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

  • When African Americans returned from World War II, they had hoped for equality.
  • When this did not occur, the civil rights movement began as African Americans planned protests and marches to end prejudice.
  • African American attorney and chief counsel for the NAACP Thurgood Marshall worked to end segregation in public schools.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-12
section 1 13

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

(cont.)

  • In 1954 several Supreme Court cases regarding segregation – including the case of Linda Brown–were combined in one ruling.
  • The girl had been denied admission to her neighborhood school in Topeka, Kansas, because she was African American.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-13
section 1 131

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

  • In the Supreme Court case Brown v. Board of Educationof Topeka, Kansas, the Court ruled that segregation in public schools was unconstitutional and violated the equal protection clause of the Fourteenth Amendment.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-13
section 1 14

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

(cont.)

  • Brown v. Board convinced African Americans to challenge all forms of segregation, but it also angered many white Southerners who supported segregation, leading to the Southern Manifesto.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-14
section 1 5

The Origins of the Movement

  • On December 1, 1955 Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man.
  • An organized boycott of the bus system was just the beginning as African Americans demanded equal rights.

(pages 746–748)

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Section 1-5
section 1 141

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

(cont.)

  • On the day Rosa Parks appeared in court, the Women’s Political Council led African Americans in a boycott against the Montgomery bus system.
  • The Montgomery Improvement Association was created to run the boycott and negotiate with city leaders to end segregation.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-14
section 1 15

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

(cont.)

  • Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., elected to head the organization, called for a nonviolent passive resistant approach to end segregation and racism.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-15
section 1 151

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

(cont.)

  • The boycott of the bus system continued for nearly a year as African Americans walked or participated in carpools.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-15
section 1 152

The Civil Rights Movement Begins

(cont.)

  • In December 1956, the United States Supreme Court declared Alabama’s laws requiring segregation on buses to be unconstitutional.

(pages 748–750)

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Section 1-15
fyi 1 1a4

“Rosa Parks sitting at the front of the bus ignited the civil Rights movement………..”

Although many people looking back at the Civil Rights movement will point to Rosa Parks as the starting point, those who lived during the struggle will point to a 15 year old boy from Chicago named Emmett Till.

FYI 1-1a
fyi 1 1a5

The story of Emmett Till…..

When the Chicago teen went to visit family in Money, Mississippi, he was unaware of the customs of the South.

After simply whistling at a white woman, Emmett was taken from his home in the middle of the night and murdered by two white men.

FYI 1-1a
fyi 1 1a6

The story of Emmett Till…..

Emmett’s mother left his casket open so that the world could see what had happened to her child.

The two men were found innocent by an all white jury because the defense argued the body could not be positively identified as that of Emmett Till.

Both men later confessed to the crime in a magazine article.

FYI 1-1a