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What Do Special Education Directors Say About RTI. Margaret Gessler Werts, PhD Monica Lambert, EdD. Purpose. To determine the perceptions of district special directors about the implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) for identification of students with LD

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What Do Special Education Directors Say About RTI


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    1. What Do Special Education Directors Say About RTI Margaret Gessler Werts, PhD Monica Lambert, EdD

    2. Purpose • To determine the perceptions of district special directors about the implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) for identification of students with LD • To examine the correlation of the use of RtI and the continued use of standardized assessment instruments. • To examine what resources are in place for the implementation of RtI

    3. Research Questions • What practices do administrators report in the implementation of RtI? • What do administrators report for the use of standardized assessments—especially those that result in an IQ score?

    4. Research Questions 3. Do administrators report training in RtI? 4. What resources are provided and what resources are needed for successful implementation of RtI?

    5. Procedures • Questionnaire development • Systematic reviews • Rewriting poorly worded questions • Adding items • Distribution by e-mail through SurveyMonkey • Initial mailing • Reminders sent every two weeks until the end of school year

    6. Data was gathered electronically • Some questions required hand entry • Entry reliability was above 99% • All errors corrected

    7. Return rate • A total of 119 e-mail addresses • Nine were undeliverable • Ten persons declined to participate • Total return rate of 50.9% • Usable return rate of 41.8%

    8. Participants • Special education directors from each district in North Carolina • 86.4% were female • All were in administrative jobs • Experience in this job • mean = 8.8 years • median = 7 years • range = 1-30 years

    9. Rural = 73.2% • Suburban = 12.2% • Urban = 14.6%

    10. What percentage of your student body has a special education label? •  less than 5 percent   4.9% • between 6 and 10 percent   12.2%  • between 11 and 15 percent58.5% • between 15 and 20 percent   24.4% • more than 20 percent  0.0%

    11. What is the size of your student body? • less than 1000   7.5%  • 1000 but less than 2499   12.5%   • 2500 but less than 499935.0% • 5000 but less than 9999   15.0% • more than 10000   30.0%

    12. Results • District administrators indicated that standardized assessment instruments are still being used • Stanford Binet Intelligence Scale 47.1% • Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children 97.3% • Wechsler Adult intelligence Scale 55.9% • Kaufman Intelligence Scale 46.9%

    13. …also still use achievement tests • Woodcock Johnson 94.6% • Brigance Comprehensive 72.2% • WIAT 81.8% • KTEA 50.0% • KeyMath 42.4% • Woodcock Reading Mastery 77.8%

    14. Resources: Have and Need • Paired t = -5.315 p<.001 • Eta = .982 • Difference in what is perceived as available and what is perceived as necessary • They need more than they have

    15. Records and information • Asked what was available in student folders • …and what was needed to conduct RtI

    16. Information in folders

    17. Information in folders

    18. Information in folders

    19. Information in folders

    20. Resource people • We aked they read the item and then pull down the menu indicating have or do not have the resource. • Then choose whether they would or would not need the resource or support for an effective program of identification of students with disabilities using RTI.

    21. Support from people

    22. Support from people

    23. Support from people

    24. Access to information • Have and need newsletters • Have and need journals • 30.4% of respondents do not have access to University libraries and do not need it. • 21.7% had access and needed it

    25. Training • The majority of respondents report having training. • They report having training from the Department of Public Instruction (DPI). • Preferred training are inservices and observations of other school districts.

    26. Meetings

    27. Meetings (Have and need combined)

    28. Extra materials/ Space

    29. Questions on details of implementation

    30. Who should determine a student's responsiveness? • special education teacher92.9% • general education teacher92.9% • principal   47.6%   • school psychologist   88.1%    • parent   71.4%     • guidance counselor   52.4%    • reading teacher92.9% • Other 42.9%  

    31. How should evidence based programs be determined? • Educational literature81.0% • Teacher evaluation   64.3%  • Experience   42.9% • Evaluated: curriculum committee   76.2% • Determined by the state   59.5%  • Other (please specify)   11.9%

    32. How long should the testing phase (instruction) last? • 1 week   12.5%   • 2 weeks   15.0%   • 1 month   20.0%   • 2 months30.0% • Half a school year  0.0%  • Other   22.5% 

    33. How intensive should instruction be in the testing phase? • Twice a week   19.5%  • Once a day61.0% • Every other day   7.3%  • Once a week   12.2%

    34. How long should sessions in the testing phase last? • 30 minute sessions47.5% • 1 hour sessions   20.0% • 2 hour sessions  0.0% • Half day sessions  0.0%  • Whole day sessions  0.0% • Other (please specify)   32.5%

    35. Which professionals should take the data? • Special educators: work with student 80.0% • General educators: work with student   85.0%   • Special educators: NOT work with student   42.5%   • General educators: NOT work with student   37.5%   • School psychologists87.5% • Guidance counselors   60.0%  • Related services personnel   75.0%  • Administrators   40.0%  • Other 25.0%  

    36. Should the intervention be individualized for the student in the testing phase? • Yes85.4% • No   7.3%   • Other   7.3% 

    37. Maybe, maybe not- should be child specific  • Depends. Not during baseline, but probes should be individualized.  • Depends on the student and the plan. 

    38. Should the discrepancy model be abandoned? • Yes45.0% • No   32.5%   • Other 22.5%  

    39. Other responses to dropping the discrepancy model • IDEA says that each LEA should decide this.   • Perhaps the discrepancy could be a supplement to RTI data.  • Used as supplement not primary indicator  • Phased out slowly  • Could be a combo  • Yes for LD, OHI, EMD, BED, possibly DD  • When the LEA has the necessary materials/staff/training to implement RTI.  • I think we should leave it as an option for those who don't feel comfortable with RTI  •  Not sure

    40. Resources • Overall, there is a difference between what is perceived as available and what is perceived as necessary • Reported more necessary than available

    41. Use of standardized tests • Administrators report use of IQ tests • Administrators report use of achievement tests • Almost 1/5 said they did not have IQ assessment and did not need it

    42. Training • There has been a high level of training • Primarily through the state department • Administrators report they need more training • We did not ask if the training was for them or for their teachers • They reported having access to written information

    43. Implementation • Administrators said teachers should determine responsiveness • Opinion of effectiveness determined by research literature closely followed by a curriculum committee • Instruction should be once a day, for 30 minutes, and for 2 months

    44. Implementation • Instruction should be individualized • No clear consensus on whether the discrepancy model should be dropped