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Paras Guide to Glaucoma. Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Glaucoma Desinee Drakulich O.D. Review. What is Glaucoma? A progressive optic neuropathy that damages retinal ganglion cells and other mechanisms in the visual pathway.

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paras guide to glaucoma

Paras Guide to Glaucoma

Diagnosis, Treatment and Management of Glaucoma

DesineeDrakulich O.D.

  • What is Glaucoma?
    • A progressive optic neuropathy that damages retinal ganglion cells and other mechanisms in the visual pathway.
    • Retinal ganglion cells are very pressure sensitive and once damaged they do not regenerate.
  • Eye Pressure- most people associate eye pressure or Intraocular Pressure (IOP) with glaucoma.
  • Normal eye pressure is between 10 mmHg and 21 mmHg
  • Average is between 14 mmHg and 16 mmHg
  • Misconception is that the measured value is the pressure in the eye, it is actually the difference between the pressure in the eye and the atmospheric pressure.
  • Not all forms of glaucoma have IOPs > 21 mmHg
  • Anatomy of the Eye
  • Types of Glaucoma
    • Primary Open Angle Glaucoma
    • Angle Closure Glaucoma
    • Low Tension Glaucoma
    • Pigmentary Glaucoma
    • Exfoliative Glaucoma
    • Acute Glaucoma
    • Congenital Glaucoma
    • Secondary Glaucoma
      • Traumatic Glaucoma
low tension glaucoma
Low Tension Glaucoma
  • Most difficult to diagnose
  • Patient have IOPs in the normal range
  • Thought to be caused by poor blood flow to the optic nerve
  • New research is answering some questions
  • In the past, diagnosis was made with the appearance of visual field loss.
  • With scanning laser technology normal tension patients are often caught before visual field damage appears
primary open angle
Primary open Angle
  • The most common form of glaucoma in African Americans and Caucasians.
  • Approximately 1% of Americans have this form of glaucoma.
  • Most common form in people over the age of 50.
  • Defined as increased intraocular pressure inconsistent with a health optic nerve and consistent with an open angle of aqueous drainage.
how to detect poag
How to detect POAG
  • Increased IOP > 21 mmHg
  • Thin central corneal thickness > 555 um
  • Peripapillary Atrophy
  • Notching or thinning of the neuroretinal rim
  • Family History
  • Large cup to disc ratio
angle closure glaucoma
Angle closure glaucoma
  • Affect about half a million people in the US
  • Tends to be inherited
  • Affects Asians and hyperopes most frequently
  • Anterior chamber smaller than average
  • Angle < 45 degrees
  • Iris forced up against trabecular meshwork causes complete closure or an acute glaucoma attack
  • Age can be a factor due to increasing size of the lens of the eye
how do we treat poag
How do we treat POAG
  • Medication Drops
  • Laser Treatments
  • Surgery
what can optometrist do
What can Optometrist Do?
  • Optometrist can detect and treatment POAG in adults with drops.
  • If pressure and vision loss can not be controlled with drop referrals must be made to Ophthalmology for laser or surgical consideration.
current types of glaucoma drops
Current Types of Glaucoma Drops
  • Cholinergics
  • Beta Blockers
  • Alpha Agonists
  • Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
  • Prostaglandins
  • Older method of treating glaucoma rarely used anymore.
  • Two major drugs: Pilocarpine and Carbachol
  • How do they work?
    • They constrict the pupil increasing drainage out of the trabecular meshwork in the angle of the eye.
    • Side effects included decrease vision in dim lighting and headaches
beta blockers
Beta Blockers
  • Also an older method of treating Glaucoma however still commonly used today
  • Most commonly used drops are: Timolol, Betoptic and Betagan.
  • How do they work? Decrease the production of aqueous
  • Side effects include decreased heart rate, decreased pulse, fatigue and shortness of breath. Caution with people with Asthma or COPD and people currently taking Beta Blockers for BP control.
alpha agonists
Alpha Agonists
  • Newer method of glaucoma treatment.
  • Two different drops available: Iopidine and Alphagan P
  • How to they work? Both decreasing aqueous production and increasing outflow of aqueous. Also considered a neuroprotective agent.
  • Side effects include fatigue, headache and dry mouth.
carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors
  • Commonly used for patients who can’t take Beta Blockers
  • Two drops available and one oral medication: Azopt, Trusopt and Diamox. Optometrists in NE can’t Rx Diamox.
  • How do they work? Decrease the production of aqueous.
  • Side effects include tingling or loss of strength of the hands and feet, upset stomach, mental fuzziness, memory problems, depression, kidney stones, and frequent urination.
combination drops
Combination Drops
  • Relatively new, good for patient who drop want to do multiple drops per day.
  • Two types of drops: Combigan and Cosept
  • Combigan is Alphagan and Timolol.
  • Cosept is Trusopt and Timolol
  • How to they work? Both increase outflow and decrease production
  • Side effects are the same as the individual drugs.
  • Newest method of treating glaucoma considered the DOC of glaucoma medication.
  • Three major drops: Xalatan, Lumigan and Travatan
  • How do they work? Increase drainage of the aqueous via and uveal scleral pathway.
  • Side effects include iris pigment change, redness in eye, stinging and itching.
so what is the best d rop
So What is the Best Drop?
  • Current studies from the Review of Optometry March 2009 show that the DOC is still Xalatan.