We are from Seven Kings High School And we were assigned to do….. Project 3 The Jumping Ring
Michael Faraday Born: 22 Sept 1791 in Newington Butts, Surrey (now London) EnglandDied: 25 Aug 1867 in Hampton Court, Middlesex, England
The English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday, born in Sept. 22, 1791,and died in Aug. 25, 1867, is known for his pioneering experiments in electricity and magnetism. Several concepts that he derived directly from experiments, such as lines of magnetic force, have become common ideas in modern physics. Faraday was born at Newington, Surrey, near London. He received little more than a primary education, and at the age of 14 he was apprenticed to a bookbinder. There he became interested in the physical and chemical works of the time. After hearing a lecture by the famous chemist Humphry Davy, he sent Davy the notes he had made of his lectures. As a result Faraday was appointed, at the age of 21, assistant to Davy in the laboratory of the Royal Institution in London. During the initial years of his scientific work, Faraday occupied himself mainly with chemical problems. He discovered two new chlorides of carbon and succeeded in liquefying chlorine and other gases. He isolated benzene in 1825, the year in which he was appointed director of the laboratory. Davy, who had the greatest influence on Faraday's thinking, had shown in 1807 that the metals sodium and potassium can be precipitated from their compounds by an electric current, a process known as electrolysis. Faraday's vigorous pursuit of these experiments led in 1834 to what became known as Faraday's laws of electrolysis.
Faraday's research of electricity and electrolysis was based on his idea that electricity is only one of the demonstrations of the forces of nature. Although this idea was incorrect, it led him into the theory of electromagnetism. By 1820, Charles Coulomb had been the first to show that electric charges repel one another, but then in 1820 Hans Christian Oersted and Andre Marie Ampere discovered that an electric current produces a magnetic field. Faraday's ideas about saving of energy led him to think that if an electric current can cause a magnetic field, a magnetic field should be able to produce an electric current. He showed this idea of induction in 1831. Faraday showed the electric current in the wire by the number of lines of force that are cut by the wire. The principle was important in applied science.
Faraday had demonstrated electromagnetism in a series of experiments. This experimental need probably led James Clerk Maxwell to believe the theory of lines of force and put Faraday's ideas into mathematical form, and so producing modern field theory. Faraday's discovery in 1845 found that an intense magnetic field can rotate the plane of polarized light and is known today as the Faraday effect. Faraday described his several experiments in electricity and electromagnetism in three volumes called Experimental Researches in Electricity and his chemical work was shown in Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics. Some examples of Faraday’s work include switching on a light bulb, and as easy as that you can experience Michael Faraday’s brilliant and fascinating discovery. And so, that is why Faraday is so important today!
Key Equation 3 H= F M 2 ( ) A, B, D, K are constants of proportionality R = Electrical resistance M = Mass F = Impulsive force L = Electric current T = Temperature H = Height Equation1 F=AL Equation 2 L=B R The 273 in the equation is there because the coldest temperature of the liquid nitrogen is –273°C therefore, the colder the temperature, the less resistance there is thus, making the ring jump higher.R can never equal a negative number because the lowest value possible for T is –273 °C. Equation 4 R=K(T+273)
Equation 3 H= F M 2 ( ) 4. To derive the equation given, we need to square the terms in the brackets. The equation is now: H = DA² B² 1 M² K² (T+273) ² X 3. Finally, we substituted F=A B/K(T+273) into equation 3 to give: H =D A B M K (T+273) ( ) 2 Equation 1 F=AL Equation 2 L=B R Equation 4 R=K(T+273) 1. From these equations, we substituted B/R into equation one to give: F=A B/R This is equation 5 2. We then substituted R=K(T+273) into equation 5 to give: F=A B/K(T+273) This is equation 6
H= 1 (T+273)² Since A, B, D, K and M are all constants we can make all the values equal to one which results in the following equation:
The values of H are always positive because the ring can only jump upwards. The values of the temperature are greater than or equal to the –273. The relevant part of the graph is between 0 and –273.
H = Height T = Temperature When T = 20 °C H= 0.00165cm (c.t 5 d.p) When the temperature drops from 20 °C to -196 °C, the height becomes slightly more than ten times greater When T = -196 °C H= 0.01687cm (c.t 5 d.p) If we continue to decrease the temperature, the height to which the ring will jump increases even further. We tried T = -272°C which gave the height to which the ring jumped as 1 meter. When we took -273°C, the height increased continuously on to infinity (making it impossible to measure). For evidence, please see the graph which is available on the page above. From equation 4 (R = K(T+273) ) we can see that when T = -273 °C then R = 0, so there is nothing to stop the ring jumping to infinity.