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Microsoft Server Virtualization Strategy And Virtual Hard Disk Directions

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  1. Microsoft Server Virtualization Strategy And Virtual Hard Disk Directions John HowardProgram Manager Windows Virtualization

  2. Microsoft Server Virtualization And Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) Directions • Server Virtualization Directions • Server Virtualization Roadmap • Past, Present, Future • VHD Directions • Technical and Implementation Overview • VHD Format in Windows Server virtualization • VHD Format Specification and Value Proposition

  3. 2007+ 2006 2005 2004 Microsoft Virtualization Directions Q4 ‘04: Virtual Server 2005 Virtual Server Migration Toolkit

  4. 2004 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 Key Usage Scenarios • Production server consolidation • Consolidation of low-utilization workloads • Physical constraints one of the key drivers • Branch office and datacenter • Development and test • Rapid provisioning of virtual machines • Undo-disks and saved states help reproduce issues • Legacy application re-hosting • Consolidate legacy OS (Windows NT, Windows 2000) and application on 2003 • Legacy OS is still a management issue • Disaster Recovery • Application portability and flexibility across hardware platforms

  5. 2004 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 • Windows server virtual machine solution • RTM’d October 2004 • Hosted on Windows Server 2003 (32-bit) • Windows XP supported for non-production use • Supported guests • Windows NT4 Server • Windows 2000 Server • Windows Server 2003

  6. 2004 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 • Windows service with a web interface • Designed for remote administration • Fully documented COM API for scripting and ISVs • Virtualizes everything you find in a x86 system • Provides virtual disks (VHD), virtual networking and virtual video

  7. 2004 Microsoft Server Virtualization Directions ToolsVirtual Server Migration Toolkit (VSMT) • Physical to Virtual (P2V) tool • Re-host an OS and applications from a physical server into a virtual machine • Supports Windows NT4, 2000, and 2003 • Provides V2V functionality • Built on ADS infrastructure

  8. 2007+ 2006 2005 2004 Microsoft Virtualization Directions Q2: MOM Management Pack for Virtual Server Q4: Virtual Server 2005 R2 RTM Windows Server System Common Engineering Criteria Windows Server System Support for Virtualization Q4 ‘04: Virtual Server 2005 Virtual Server Migration Toolkit

  9. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization Directions ToolsMOM Management Pack for Virtual Server • Released April 2005 • Unified view of Physical and Virtual Machines • Execute actions from central console • Free download

  10. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2 • x64 Host Support • Performance Improvements • High Availability Scenarios • PXE Network Boot Support • Support for additional hosts and guests • Other Improvements

  11. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: x64 Host Support • Supported x64 hosts • Windows Server 2003 Standard x64 Edition • Windows Server 2003 Enterprise x64 Edition • Windows XP Professional x64 Edition (non-production only) • Native 64-bit Components • 32-bit guests

  12. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: Performance Improvements • Architectural optimizations for memory mapping • One customer saw 50% drop in CPU usage • Internal SQL testing shows up to 100% performance improvement • Performance results will vary

  13. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: High Availability Scenarios • Virtual Machine Clustering • Support for iSCSI allows clustering virtual machines across hosts • Virtual Server R2 Host Cluster support • The ability to cluster Virtual Server hosts • Virtual Server host clustering uses Windows Server 2003 EE/DTC clustering • Virtual Server host clustering supports SAN, iSCSI or direct attached storage • Benefits • Guest OS independent • Free download

  14. Administrator wants to update node 1 with Windows Server Update Services Microsoft Cluster Administration Console saves the state of virtual machines and restores them on another node Node 1 is ready for update installation VM VM VM 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: Planned Downtime (i.e. Host Updating) WSUS server Shared Storage Node 1 Node 2 Node 3

  15. Node 1 suffers a power outage or a network failure A simple script attached to the Microsoft Cluster Administration Console notices the lack of heartbeat and starts the virtual machines associated with node 1 on other nodes VM VM VM 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: Unplanned Downtime (i.e. Hardware Failure) Shared Storage Node 1 Node 2 Node 3 X

  16. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: PXE Boot Support • Emulated network card now supports PXE boot • PXE infrastructure needed on network • Can now deploy an OS into a VM like any other physical machine

  17. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: New Supported Hosts and Guests • New Hosts • Windows Server 2003 SP1 (STD/EE) • Windows Server 2003 x64 (STD/EE) • Windows Server 2003 R2 (STD/EE) • Windows XP Professional SP2 • Windows XP Professional x64 Edition • New Guests • Windows Server 2003 SP1 (STD/EE) • Windows XP Professional SP2 • Windows Server 2003 R2 • 3rd party guest OS support • 9 distributions of Linux now supported

  18. 2005 Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: Other Improvements • F6 Disk – Accelerated SCSI Driver • Virtual Disk Pre-compactor and Compactor • Open necessary ports at install time • Reserve space for saved states

  19. Includes 4 virtual instances 2005 Microsoft Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2: Other Improvements License by “running instances” Library with 100 images of Windows 7Servers running images(1 per server) • Promotes the use of virtualization and a more dynamic data center • Create as many images as you would like • Store the images where you need them • License the machine for the instances you use Old License model • Total: 107 Windows Licenses New License model • Total: 7 Windows Licenses

  20. 2007+ • * Dates for pre-released software are subject to change 2006 2005 2004 Microsoft Virtualization Directions Q1: Virtual Server 2005 R2  Free Q2: New MOM MP for Virtual Server Q2: Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 Beta *Q4: Windows Server virtualization Beta Q2: MOM Management Pack for Virtual Server Q4: Virtual Server 2005 R2 RTM Windows Server System Common Engineering Criteria Windows Server System Support for Virtualization Q4 ‘04: Virtual Server 2005 Virtual Server Migration Toolkit

  21. 2006 Microsoft Server Virtualization Directions ToolsMOM Management Pack for Virtual Server v2 • Features • Direct access to the Virtual Server Administration Website from MOM • Virtual machine state alerting • Virtualization candidates report • Diagram view • Graphical view of host/guest relationship • Performance summary report • View performance trends • Released in April

  22. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2 SP1: New Hardware Support • Hardware Assisted Virtualization • Intel Virtualization Technology (IVT) • AMD Virtualization Technology (AMD-V) • Hardware assistance is not required but will be used if present • VMs can be moved from between IVT and AMD-V when shutdown • Can be enabled or disabled on a per-VM basis • Performance • Windows • Generally, Windows performance is neutral due to existing optimizations). Windows Setup is faster (~3x faster) • Non-Windows • Greatly improved performance

  23. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2 SP1: New OS Support • New Host Support • Windows Vista (non-production use only) • Windows Server 2003 SP2 • Windows Server codenamed "Longhorn" (LH) Beta • Starting with Virtual Server R2 SP1 Beta 2 • New Guest Support • Windows Server 2003 SP2 • Windows Server Longhorn Beta • Starting with Virtual Server R2 SP1 Beta 1 • Windows Vista

  24. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2 SP1: New VSS and Scalability Support • VHD Mounting support • Allows customers to edit VHD contents offline • Volume Shadow Service Support • Host side, stateful backups • For Windows Server 2003 guests and later: Hot back up of guests • For other OSes (Windows 2000, Linux): Minimal downtime (saved state) backups • Any “VSS-aware” backup application can leverage this functionality • x64 Scalability • On x64 hosts, increase the limit to 128 running virtual machines

  25. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsVirtual Server 2005 R2 SP1: AD Integration and Additional Features • Integration with Active Directory • Service Connection Points • Provide guest computer name from the VM to the host of the computer • Virtual Server Host Clustering • Script and whitepaper now included • Default VHD size • Changing from 16 GB to 127 GB for dynamic disks only

  26. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsWindows Server virtualization: Introduction • Hypervisor-based • Thin layer of software underneath all OSes • Management partition (Parent) • Runs Virtualization Stack • Exposes WMI • Manages Child partitions (start/stop/configure…) • Child partitions

  27. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsWindows Server virtualization: VMM Arrangement Hybrid VMM Type-1 VMM(Hypervisor) Guest 1 Guest 2 Guest 1 Guest 2 Host OS VMM VMM Hardware Hardware Examples: Virtual Server Examples:Windows Server virtualization

  28. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsWindows Server virtualization: Goals • Improve target workload capability • Performance • Scalability • Availability • Manageability • Security • Etc.

  29. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsWindows Server virtualization: Small Feature Subset • Requires x64 hardware virtualization support • 32-bit (x86) & 64-bit (x64) child partitions • SMP 2/4/8 way virtual machines • Large memory support (>4 GB) within VMs • Memory over-commit; Page sharing • Pass-through disk access for VMs (SAN, DAS)

  30. 2006 -2007+ Microsoft Server Virtualization DirectionsWindows Server virtualization: Small Feature Subset • Hot add Storage • Virtual machine snapshots • Role-based security • Group policy integration

  31. 2007+ • * Dates for pre-released software are subject to change 2006 2005 2004 Microsoft Virtualization Directions *Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 RTM *Windows Server virtualization RTM Q1: Virtual Server 2005 R2  Free Q2: New MOM MP for Virtual Server Q2: Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 Beta *Q4: Windows Server virtualization Beta Q2: MOM Management Pack for Virtual Server Q4: Virtual Server 2005 R2 RTM Windows Server System Common Engineering Criteria Windows Server System Support for Virtualization Q4 ‘04: Virtual Server 2005 Virtual Server Migration Toolkit

  32. Microsoft Server Virtualization And Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) Directions • Virtualization Directions • Server Virtualization Roadmap • Past, Present, Future • VHD Directions • Technical and Implementation Overview • VHD Format in Windows Server virtualization • VHD Format Specification and Value Proposition

  33. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsWhat files make up a virtual machine? • Per Virtual Machine • .VMC – Configuration • .VHD – Virtual hard disk • .VSV – Saved state • .VUD – Undo disk • Per Virtual Server Host • .VNC - Network

  34. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsVHD Types • Dynamically expanding • Fixed-size • Differencing • Undo disks

  35. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsDynamically Expanding VHD Features • What is a dynamically expanding virtualhard disk? • Grows dynamically • File is as big as the actual data in the drive • Allocation is done in blocks • Maximum size of a dynamically expanding VHD • Size is limited only by available disk space or up to 2040 GB for SCSI and 127 GB for IDE

  36. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsDynamically Expanding VHD Tradeoffs • Pro • Grows only when data is added to the disk • Con • Slower (as compared to fixed) • May fragment and does not automatically shrink • To recover unused space, compact the VHD • Defragment VM • Zero out the VM disks (use the Virtual Disk Pre-compactor) • Shutdown and inspect disk • Compact disk

  37. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsFixed Size VHD Features • What is a fixed-size VHD? • Size is determined when the file is created • File size is fixed despite changes in stored data • Maximum size of the fixed hard drive • Size is limited only by available disk space or up to 2040 GB for SCSI and 127 GB for IDE

  38. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsFixed Size VHD Tradeoffs • Pro • Minimized fragmentation • Better performance (as compared to dynamic) • Disk space is allocated up front(ensures adequate storage) • Con • Not as efficient as dynamically expanding VHDs

  39. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsDifferencing VHD Features • Hierarchical relationship • Parent-Child • No limit to number of levels • Mark parent read-only • Use sysprep if appropriate

  40. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsDifferencing VHD Tradeoffs • Pro • Add data to a disk w/o making changes to the parent disk • Revert to old disk by just deleting the differencing disk • Con • Copy the parent and differencing disk(s) files to move a disk around

  41. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsUndo Disk Features (1/2) • Fastest “back to original state” imaging solution we have • Perfect for versioning and testing – such as patches • Options at shutdown • Keep • Commit • Discard

  42. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsUndo Disk Features (2/2) • Enabled per Guest, not per .vhd • Do NOT use with domain controllers • Can be used in tandem with differencing disks

  43. VM Base Base Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsVHD Summary 1GB 2TB Host 2TB Guest 2TB Host 2TB Guest Session SP1 SP2 Host

  44. Microsoft Server Virtualization And Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) Directions • Virtualization Directions • Server Virtualization Roadmap • Past, Present, Future • VHD Directions • Technical and Implementation Overview • VHD Format in Windows Server virtualization • VHD Format Specification and Value Proposition

  45. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsVHD enhancements in Windows Server virtualization • Online VHD compaction • Online differencing VHD creation • Online merging of differencing disks • VHD notes

  46. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsVHD enhancements in Windows Server virtualization • Snapshotting • Dynamic VHD mounting within a VM • Pass-through VHD • Offline VHD mounting

  47. Microsoft Server Virtualization And Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) Directions • Virtualization Directions • Server Virtualization Roadmap • Past, Present, Future • VHD Directions • Technical and Implementation Overview • VHD Format in Windows Server virtualization • VHD Format Specification and Value Proposition

  48. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsVHD Ecosystem • Royalty-free licensing of VHD format • Promote a standard format that will provide Microsoft customers with the best servicing solution • Continued support and migration path to future versions • Examples of integration with VHD Image Format • Patching • Virus scan • Backup/restore • Virtual machine inventory • 45+ partners have already licensed the format

  49. Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsVHD Ecosystem • Licensing Agreement • Licensing Process • Fast and simple • Licensing packavailable today • For further information please contact VHD Format Specification Introductions Overview of VHD Types VHD Footer Format Dynamically expanding .VHD Header Format Block Allocation Table and Data Blocks Implementing a Dynamically Expanding .VHD Mapping a Disk Sector to a Sector in the Block Splitting VHDs Implementing a Differencing VHD CHS Calculation Vhdlic @ microsoft.com

  50. Microsoft Server Virtualization And Virtual Hard Disk (VHD) DirectionsCall to action • Download Virtual Server 2005 R2 from the web for free at www.microsoft.com/virtualserver • Enter the Virtual Server 2005 R2 SP1 Beta Program at www.connect.microsoft.com • License the VHD Format Specification for integration with your products and services